Category Archives: Bible Prophecy



Luke 13:23-28, “Someone said to him (Yeshua), “Lord, are only a few people to be saved?” So he said to them, 24 “Struggle to enter through the narrow door, because I say to you, many will want to enter, but will not be able to enter. 25 Once the owner of the house gets up and locks the door, then you will stand outside and knock at the door and say, ‘Lord, Lord, let us in.’ And he will answer and say to you, ‘I do not know you or where you are from.’ 26 Then you will say, ‘We ate and drank in front of you and you taught in our streets.’ 27 But he will reply, ‘I say to you, I do not know where you are from. Get away from me, you evildoers!’ 28 There will be crying and the grinding of teeth when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets in Yahweh’s kingdom, but you are thrown out.”


You all know what a lock tumbler is: Wordweb states it is: “A movable obstruction in a lock that must be adjusted to a given position (as by a key) before the bolt can be thrown.”; states: “(in a lock) any locking or checking part that, when lifted or released by the action of a key or the like, allows the bolt to move.” Right now, even in these endtime days we live in, the universe is still moving around, like a tumbler in a lock, but soon, very soon, Yahweh will lock this Universe into a beautiful state of his glory. A state we look forward to with every fiber of our being. Will you be locked in or locked out? Make your choice today, choose life.

Well, folks, I thought I was finished with this Universe Locked theme, but my wife, Marner, read Isaiah 66:22-23 the other day and noticed right away that Yahweh and Isaiah separated the Sabbath from the lunar months. Let’s read it: “For just as the new heavens and the new earth that I will make will remain before me, declares Yahweh, so your descendants will remain, and your name will remain. 23 From one new moon to the next lunar month, and from one Sabbath to the next Sabbath, all people will come to bow down to me in worship, says Yahweh.” Yahweh is looking forward to our worship when He and Yeshua are tabernacling with us here on earth.

Isaiah understood the biblical lunar calendar and we can see that he understands the meaning of Strong’s word for moon, # 3391, yerach, that means LUNATION! Isaiah quotes Yahweh himself saying that the lunar calendar goes from one lunar conjunction to the next lunar conjunction! Yahweh through Isaiah virtually wrote the definition for the word lunation right there in verse 23. Look how Yahweh and Isaiah compare with Strong’s definition for yerach: “a lunation, that is, month” Lunation’s dictionary definitions from: Wordweb = “The period between successive new moons”; from = “the period of time from one new moon to the next; a lunar month.” Yahweh, Isaiah and Dr. Strong agree that a lunation defines a lunar month. Verse 23 is a sure confirmation to our understanding of the biblical lunar calendar revealed in Exodus 2:2 and other places. Isaiah read and knew the Torah of Moses. Isaiah lived and prophesied about 750 years after Moses, per Isaiah 1:1. Isaiah possibly lived through the calendar change caused by the Mars flyby in 701 BC, along with King Hezekiah. Please read all of Isaiah, Chapter 66.

Either when Yeshua returns, or 1,000 years later, Yahweh is going to lock the universe into a glorious eternal state. A state we can only imagine today. But according to verse 23, there will still be a moon revolving around the earth, going through its lunations. At the same time, Yahweh’s followers will still be counting the days of the weekly Sabbath cycle. Notice how Yahweh through Isaiah separates the concept of the lunar month from that of the weekly Sabbath cycle. They are two distinct and different aspects of Yahweh’s biblical calendar. The moon determines the months, as we’ve learned before, and counting 24-hour days, 1 through 7, determines our week. Work six days and take the seventh-day Sabbath off and rest. Yahweh through Isaiah does not even hint at the heresy that the Sabbath is tied to the lunar month, or that the lunar month determines a Sabbath, which is a false teaching and doctrine. Yahweh’s biblical principles and biblical lunar calendar will stand for all eternity. And look right there in verse 23, the weekly seventh-day Sabbath will last for all eternity also! Are you ready for a real change? I hope so. Repent of your sin and give your life to Yeshua today. Don’t get locked out!!

Gene Benjamin II

July 10, 2018


UNIVERSE LOCKED – Evidence for a Biblical Lunar Calendar


Evidence for a Biblical Lunar Calendar

Gene Benjamin II

June 18, 2018

All Scriptures taken from the SOMB, the Son Of Man Bible, original work at I used their Unlocked Literal Bible to make the SOMB.bblx for e-Sword Bible program. Sola Scriptura, my friends, Sola Scriptura!

Let’s look at the Holy Scriptures only for our doctrine of a biblical calendar. I had never noticed the word “chadash” before. Chadash, as “new”, Strong’s number 2319 only means new, but it’s root word is also Chadash, number 2318, that also means to renew or make new, which is exactly what Chodesh is, Strong’s number 2320 (TWOT1 # 613b), and it comes from this same root Chadash. These are LUNAR or MOON renewal terms in and of themselves, in their most basic meaning and usage.

But even more exciting than these terms is the Aramaic word YERACH or YERAH, Strong’s number 3391 (TWOT1 # 913b), which in its basic, foundational, plain literal meaning is LUNATION!! Lunation means the period between successive new moons. It literally means one lunar month. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, today, defines lunation as the period of time averaging 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 2.8 seconds elapsing between two successive new moons. But we already know from Noah and his Great Flood that back in Genesis, the lunation was EXACTLY 30 days, 0 hours, 0 minutes, 0 seconds, or a perfect 360-day lunar, and a perfect 360-day solar, year. I believe the sun and moon were perfectly synchronized at the 360-day year. The planet Mars flyby in 701 BC altered the perfect biblical calendar to what we have today, a 365 1/4 day solar year and a 354 day lunar year. (; But don’t despair, from prophecy, we know another planetary flyby or earth strike will re-adjust the earth calendar back to the perfect 360-day biblical calendar for at least the final seven year Tribulation. You can research that for yourself in Genesis, Daniel, and Revelation.

Complete or full month, or month of days, is just one phase of YERACH’S meanings, no pun intended, but this Hebrew word basicly means the complete lunar cycle, the moon’s lunation! Now here’s a word, YERACH, Strong’s number 3391, that we need to take a serious look at! Since this word is found in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance and Dictionary, that means it’s found in the Holy Scriptures. This is a word we need to investigate only in the Holy Scriptures. We need not look at outside sources at all, but only look right inside our Holy Bible! We build our teachings, beliefs, doctrines, and theology from the Holy Scriptures, not from other books or websites, no matter how intriguing they may be. Sola Scriptura!

Of course, you know one of my primary ways of studying words is to find its “first use” in the Scriptures. Using this Bible study principle can save you a lot of headaches down the road of your believing life. So, where is this word found first? How about right at Moses’ birth, 80 years (c. 1563 BC) BEFORE the Exodus (c. 1484 BC)! Exodus 2:2, “The woman (Moses’ Mom) became pregnant and gave birth to a son. When she saw that he was a healthy boy, she hid him for three lunations.” Well, there it is, folks, three lunar months tracked and counted by the Hebrew slaves in Egypt. The ancient Hebrew Israelites were enslaved in a sun-god worshiping nation, and were following a LUNAR calendar, the biblical lunar calendar, eighty years BEFORE the Exodus from Egypt. Folks, that demonstrates that the Hebrew children of Israel were fiercely holding to their beliefs in Yahweh, his word, and his biblical lunar calendar! Folks, that’s about 3,580 years ago, long before the aprocryphal books were ever written.

Let’s look at another example of the use of Yerah in Deuteronomy 21:13, the law regarding marrying female captives: “Then she will take off the clothes she was wearing when she was taken captive and she will remain in your house and mourn for her father and her mother a full lunation. After that you may make love to her and be her husband, and she will be your wife.” This is that month of days meaning, a lunation of days, the full lunar cycle, one lunar month!! And notice that this is Moses teaching the Torah to the children of Israel. I believe Moses learned the biblical lunar calendar from Yahweh and his Mom.

Another example is in Deuteronomy 33:13-15, where Moses is blessing the children of Joseph, “About Joseph, Moses said: May his land be blessed by Yahweh with the precious things of heaven, with the dew, and with the deep that lies beneath. 14 May his land be blessed with the precious things of the harvest of the sun, with the precious things of the produce of the lunations, 15 with the finest things of the ancient mountains, and with the precious things of the everlasting hills.” Food plants need the sun, but it is also important for the farmer or vinedresser to know how many lunations, or months, a plant needs for its growth and life cycle. That helps to know when to plant and harvest. Moses understood the agricultural importance of the moon’s lunations in relation to the harvest of crops! We must live by an agriculturally adjusted, luni-solar calendar. I will not delve further into that topic in this video.

The word is used twice, by none other than the wisest man in all of human history, King Solomon, in 1 Kings 6:37-38, “The foundation of the temple of Yahweh was laid in the fourth year (c. 967), in the lunation (yerach) of Ziv. 38 In the eleventh year (c. 960 BC), in the lunation of Bul, which is the eighth lunar month (chodesh), the temple was finished in all its parts and conforming to all its specifications. Solomon took seven years to build the temple.” Friends, sit back and re-read this passage as many times as you need to and understand that the wisest king in all of human history FOLLOWED A LUNAR CALENDAR WHILE BUILDING THE TEMPLE OF ALMIGHTY YAHWEH!!! Notice, Solomon uses the word year and lunation in the same sentence. We know our year is defined as one complete revolution of the earth around the sun. It doesn’t really matter how many lunar months are placed inside of a solar year. You could have 12 or 13 lunar months inside of a solar year. It does not matter, because Yahweh’s Feasts are held in the First, Third, and Seventh lunar months of the year. We can easily adjust the lunar calendar by intercalating a 13th month at the end of the lunar year to keep in sync with the solar seasons of the year. Meditate on 1 Kings 6:37-38 for as long as you need to, but let it soak into your spirit and help you settle your biblical calendar theology!

Our next example is in 1 Kings 8:2, “All the men of Israel assembled before King Solomon at the feast, in the lunation (yerach) of Ethanim, which is the seventh lunar month (chodesh).” So, what does this verse reveal to us? It shows that the most-wise King Solomon celebrated the Feast of Tabernacles, one of Yahweh’s commanded feasts, ACCORDING TO THE LUNAR CALENDAR! This was the day King Solomon had the priests place the Ark of the Covenant into the new Holy of Holies, the most holy place in the inner Temple. Are you now getting a biblical lunar calendar understanding? Notice, this has nothing to do with bowing down and worshiping the moon, it’s about using the moon to mark time, as your personal and national calendar! It’s not about using the moon to prognosticate about the future, it’s about using the moon as the timepiece Yahweh created it to be, so we can CELEBRATE HIS FEASTS ON HIS BIBLICAL LUNAR CALENDAR.

Our next example is found in 2 Kings 15:13, “Shallum son of Jabesh began to reign in the thirty-ninth year (c. 752 BC) of Uzziah king of Judah, and he reigned only one lunation in Samaria.” This is another example of the lunar month of days meaning for the word yerach. Shallum only survived as king in the northern kingdom of Israel for one lunar month, 30 days. Verse 14 shows that Menahem killed him and became king of Israel in his place. Notice, this is still before the Mars flyby and several hundred years BEFORE any Pharisee or Sadducee drew his first breath. The official civil government of the kingdoms of Judah and Israel marked events of the kings of Israel according to the biblical lunar calendar. This is what the Holy Bible reveals to us, not what any outside source teaches us.

Our next example is found in Job 3:6, Job is lamenting his own birth, “As for that night, may thick darkness seize it. May it not rejoice among the days of the year; may it not come into the number of the lunations.” Job was a famous, powerful, successful and influential believer in his day. He understood that the solar year and the lunar month were timepiece measurements of the days of his life. I believe he was wishing that he had never been born. He was in a very rough time of his life. Job counted his months by the moon, plain and simple.

Our next example is found in Job 7:3 where Job continues to speak about his seemingly hopeless life, “so I have been made to endure lunations of misery; I have been given trouble-filled nights.” Job’s plight did not last just a few days, it was months and lunar months of affliction.

Our next example is found in Job 29:2-3, where he summarizes his defense, “Oh, that I were as I was in the past lunations when the Almighty cared for me, 3 when his lamp shined on my head, and when I walked through darkness by his light.” Do you see Job’s play on words? The moon gave Job light at night; just as Yahweh always had been Job’s spiritual light; he wants to believe Yahweh is still his light! Of course, Yahweh is our eternal spiritual light. Isaiah and Revelation reveal he will also be our “physical” light in the kingdom, though, on this side of eternity, we may not understand what that reality will be like.

Our next example is from Job 39:2, where Yahweh himself answers and grills Job, “Can you count the lunations that they (goats and deer) gestate? Do you know the time when they bear their young?” What a humbling experience for Job. May we all humble ourselves like Job, before our great and awesome Yahweh, our Creator and King. Do you see it? Here, YAHWEH HIMSELF speaks of his very own personal biblical lunar calendar!!! Yahweh knows Job must use the biblical lunar calendar to count the lunar months of a mammal’s gestation period. Yahweh’s biblical lunar calendar was not and is not a one-time fluke in Scripture!! It is the calendar of the Bible and of our natural world.

Now, I’m going to skip ahead to Zechariah 11:8, “In one lunation I destroyed the three shepherds, for I ran out of patience with them, and they hated me as well.” Read the whole Chapter 11, this is Yeshua speaking in the Old Covenant, which on that day, he was breaking the covenant between himself and Israel! This is not a month of days meaning, exactly. The word one is echad, so this may be saying He destroyed the three shepherds in one lunar month or in the first lunar month of the year, either translation would work.

Now, let’s go back and look at our final example in Isaiah 60:19-20, where we see the future glory of Israel, “The sun will no longer be your light by day, nor will the brightness of the moon (yareach) shine on you; but Yahweh will be your everlasting light, and your Almighty your glory. 20 Your sun will no longer set, nor will your lunation wane to conjunction; for Yahweh will be your everlasting light, and the days of your mourning will be ended.”

I was so excited when I came to this verse, I couldn’t sleep! Read verse 20 carefully. Research it for yourself. I truly believe Yahweh revealed to me the final locked state of the physical universe, when He reveals Yeshua to the world. There is a day coming when the sun will no longer set and the moon will no longer go through its lunations! When Yahweh and the Lamb are the light of the world, literally fulfilled at the end of days. This appears to be after the Great White throne judgment of Revelation 20. Revelation 21:22-24, “I saw no temple in the city, for Lord Yahweh El Shaddai and the Lamb are its temple. 23 The city had no need of the sun or the moon in order to shine on it, because the glory of Yahweh shone on it, and its lamp is the Lamb. 24 The ethno-linguistic nations will walk by the light of that city. The kings of the earth will bring their splendor into it.”

That is the day we’re all looking for, when the universe will be locked in Yahweh’s glory forever! I chose the phrase in Isaiah 60:20, “wane to conjunction”, because the Hebrew word is “acaph” and can mean to take away, remove, withdraw, perish. When does the moon appear to do these things? When it goes into conjunction, once every lunation! One day soon, the moon’s lunations will cease. It will be locked into position for all eternity. There will be no more need for lunations, as we need now. We need the lunations now to know when to celebrate Yahweh’s feasts. Then, Yeshua himself will lead us to celebrate feasts when Yahweh desires! Until that glorious day, let’s use Yahweh’s biblical lunar calendar, so we can celebrate with him as biblically accurately as we can.

Now, for fun, let’s switch back to understanding how the Hebrews would have stated the “New Moon”. Contrary to what some teach, the Hebrews would not have said “Yareach Chadash” or “Chadash Yareach”, for New Moon. How do I know this? Well, thanks to my buddy priest and prophet Ezekiel, we know how the Hebrews stated the beginning of the New Year. Look at Ezekiel 40:1, “In the twenty-fifth year (c. 574 BC, Ezekiel’s Jubilee year) of our captivity at the beginning of the year (Rosh Hashanah) on the tenth of the lunar month, in the fourteenth year after the city was captured, on that same day, the hand of Yahweh was upon me and he took me there.” As far as I know, from my research, this is the ONLY place in the Tanach, the Old Covenant, where the phrase Rosh Hashanah is found. I found this phrase about nine years ago while doing my biblical chronology studies. This verse is locked in and synchronized with Ezekiel 1:1, the 30th year of the Jubilee Cycle! Ezekiel 40:1 reveals Ezekiel’s Jubilee year in 574 BC!

Anyway, notice Ezekiel did not write chadash hashanah, but rosh hashanah, the beginning of the year. Is it possible we could find the new moon expressed with similar language? Why YES! Yes we can! Most biblical calendar students begin their teachings with Exodus 12:2, so let’s go there first, “For you, this new moon will be the start of lunar months, the first new moon of the year to you.” That phrase, “start of lunar months” is in Hebrew, “Rosh Chodesh”!!! Whoa, is that beautiful or what!?! Moses, the great prophet like Ezekiel, uses Rosh instead of Chadash! So, is that the only example? No, we can find a couple more, at least.

Numbers 10:10, “Also, at the times of celebration, both your appointment calendar festivals and at the beginning of the lunar months, you must blow the trumpets in honor of your burnt offerings and over the sacrifices for your fellowship offerings. These will act as a reminder of you to me, your Almighty. I am Yahweh your Almighty.” Again, that is the phrase Rosh Chodesh!! The Hebrews said Rosh Chodesh, not Chadash Yareach!

Numbers 28:11, “At the beginning of each lunar month, you must offer a burnt offering to Yahweh. You must offer two young bulls, one ram, and seven male lambs a year old without blemish.” Again, the phrase in Hebrew is “Rosh Chodesh”!!! You could just as easily translate these phrases as beginning of the new month(s), or beginning of the month(s), but I use lunar month(s) for emphasis. I do not see a solar calendar taught in the Scriptures as Yahweh’s biblical appointed Feasts calendar. It’s just not there in the Holy Scriptures, but a biblical lunar calendar is repeatedly taught and revealed.

Now, Psalm 104:19, makes more sense to me than it ever has: “He made the moon to mark the appointment calendar festivals; the sun knows its time for setting.” Now, this verse is a great confirmation verse to the biblical lunar calendar. Before today, to me at least, this verse stood out as a kind of oddity in the Scriptures. I had not found other Scriptures to help confirm and tie down a biblical lunar calendar. Well, I’m really convinced now, and I hope you are too. Yahweh did not have to create a moon and hang it out their in space just for us to use as a biblical calendar maker and marker, but he chose to do it, out of love for us. Is he the coolest Almighty Divine One or what? Yes, yes he is.

1Harris, R. Laird. Archer, Gleason L. Jr. Waltke, Bruce K. Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament. Chicago: Moody Publishers, 1980: 407, 266.





All Scripture is taken from the Son Of Man Bible, SOMB.bblx, e-Sword computer Bible module, available from, do a search for “Unlocked Literal Bible 9” and also from, do a search for “Son Of Man Bible”. The Son Of Man Bible is available on PC, Apple, Android, and Linux.

Daniel dates his Chapter Eight prophecies for us in Daniel 8:1, “In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar (approximately 549 BC), I, Daniel, had a vision appear to me, after the one that appeared to me at first.”

The angel plainly tells Daniel that the vision of the ram and goat is for the time of the end, Daniel 8:17,19,So he came near where I stood. When he came, I was frightened and prostrated myself on the ground. He said to me, “Understand, son of man, that the vision is for the time of the end.” 19 He said, “See, I will show you what will happen later in the time of wrath, because the vision concerns the appointed time for the end.”

The prophecy we are interested in is the 2,300 evening-morning prophecy, Daniel 8:9-14,Out of one of them grew another horn, little at first, but which became very large in the south, in the east, and in the land of beauty. 10 It became so large as to engage in war with the army of heaven. Some of that army and some of the stars were thrown down to the earth, and it trampled on them. 11 It made itself to be as great as the commander of the army. It took away from him the regular (twice-daily) burnt offering, and the place of his sanctuary was polluted. 12 Because of rebellion, the army will be given over to the goat’s horn, and the (twice-daily) burnt offering will be stopped. The horn will throw truth down to the ground, and it will succeed in what it does. 13 Then I heard a holy one speaking and another holy one answering him, “How long will these things last, this vision about the burnt offering, the sin that brings destruction, the handing over of the sanctuary, and heaven’s army being trampled on?” 14 He said to me, “It will last for 2,300 evenings and mornings. After that the sanctuary will be put right.” (2,300 twice-daily sacrifices = 1,150 days, see Exodus 29:38-42)”

The fact that it’s exactly 1,150 days being spoken about is nailed firmly down by Fred P. Miller in his article at: and by Rick Lanser, MDiv, of Associates for Biblical Research, in his article at:

1,150 days is the length of the prophetic event that was to happen in the future from Daniel, not a calculated duration of time from Daniel’s time to the beginning of some future prophetic event. As Mr. Miller and Mr. Lanser point out, the exact begin and end dates of Daniel’s abomination event is known from the Book of Maccabees. About 400 years after Daniel received this vision the abomination event of Antiochus IV Epiphanes began exactly on Kislev 15, 167 BC (Jewish year 3595), according to 1 Maccabees 1:54, “On the fifteenth day of Chislev in the (Seleucid) year 145 the king built the appalling abomination on top of the altar of burnt offering; and altars were built in the surrounding towns of Judah” Daniel proclaimed 400 years earlier that this event would last exactly 2,300 evening-morning, or 1,150 days and ended on Kislev 25, 164 BC (Jewish year 3598), according to 1 Maccabees 4:52-53, “On the twenty-fifth of the ninth month, Chislev, in the (Seleucid) year 148 they rose at dawn (53) and offered a lawful sacrifice on the new altar of burnt offering which they had made.”

I’ve written previously establishing that Seleucid year 145 is equal to 167 BC, so I won’t elaborate on that again.

We see that there are 3, 360-day years, from 167 to 164 BC, plus the 10 days from the 15th to the 25th of the same month, plus 2 intercalary 30-day months to keep the seasons in line with the sun, giving us exactly 1,150 days of Daniel’s prophecy, calculated as follows:


3 X 360-day years = 1,080 days

plus 10 days + 10 days

plus 2 30-day months + 60 days

TOTAL = 1,150 days

Never doubt that the Holy Scriptures and Yahweh’s holy angels and prophets prophesy exactly. There is no doubt, there is no error in Bible prophecy, only precise accuracy. You can trust Yahweh’s Word, so you know you can trust Yahweh.

No one, including Daniel, understood the vision in Daniel’s day. Most humans today still don’t understand Daniel Chapter 8 visions and prophecy. Mr. Miller and Mr. Lanser mention that Daniel predicted a Greek calendar hundreds of years ahead of time, but I want you to know Yahweh is Hebrew, the angel is Hebrew, Daniel is Hebrew, the Maccabees were Hebrew. The Maccabees hated the Greeks for trying to destroy Jews and Judaism. None of these people are interested in a Greek 360-day calendar. The prophecy and the days calculations also work in the Hebrew prophetic 360-day biblical calendar. All the prophecies in the Bible can be understood according to Yahweh’s biblical Hebrew calendar.

Daniel 8:26, “The vision about the evenings and mornings that has been told is true. But seal up the vision, for it refers to many days in the future.” Antiochus IV Epiphanes, as a type of anti-messiah may have fulfilled Daniel’s 2,300 evening-morning prophecy back in 167-164 BC, but we understand from the New Covenant that we will see a similar abomination of desolation again in the end times that we live in. Daniel chapter 8 is very clear that his prophesies concern the end of time, not just Antiochus’ time. Yeshua predicted it in Matthew 24:15, “Therefore, when you see the abomination of desolation, which was spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy of holies” (let the reader understand),”

Paul understood Yeshua’s prophecy,

2 Thessalonians 2:1-4,”Now about the coming of our Lord Yeshua Messiah and our being gathered together to be with him: We ask you, brothers, 2 that you not be easily disturbed or troubled, either by a spirit, by a message, or by a letter that seems to be coming from us, to the effect that the day of Messiah has already come. 3 Let no one deceive you in any way. For it will not come until after the falling away comes, and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the son of destruction. 4 This is he who opposes and exalts himself against all that is called Yahweh or that is worshiped. As a result, he as Yahweh sits in the temple of Yahweh and exhibits himself as Yahweh.”

I encourage you to read all of 1st and 2nd Thessalonians. The end rapidly approaches. Are you ready to meet your Maker, Yahweh? Repent of your sins, ask Yeshua to save you today.


At this very moment we are waiting for Daniel’s Chapter 8 war between the West and Iran/Iraq. We’ve already whipped Iraq, now we (America, Israel, and our allies) will whip Iran, just before America is destroyed. There is no time to waste, repent of your sin today, this second.


Gene Benjamin II

May 2, 2018

Passover 2018

Passover 2018

The Next Memorial Day

All Scripture is taken from my new Son Of Man Bible, available free at Do a search for “Unlocked Literal Bible 9” and the SOMB module will appear in the download list.

There are three Feasts of Yahweh coming up in possibly a few days, depending on whether or not our spotters find aviv barley in the land of Israel before the end of this 12th lunar month. If they do, we will celebrate Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, and Feast of First Fruits at the end of March and first week of April. If they don’t find aviv barley in Israel, we will celebrate these three commanded feasts at the end of April.

The first feast is Passover: Leviticus 23:4-5, “These are the appointment calendar festivals of Yahweh, the holy assemblies that you must announce at their appointed times: 5 In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month at twilight, is Yahweh’s Passover.” The first month being the first lunar month of the Hebrew religious calendar. Passover is the memorial feast honoring Yeshua as our Lamb of Yahweh that takes away the sin of the world.

The second feast is Unleavened Bread: Leviticus 23:6-8, “On the fifteenth day of the same month is the Feast of Unleavened Bread for Yahweh. For seven days you must eat unleavened bread. 7 The first day you must set apart to gather together; you will not do any of your regular work. 8 You will present a food offering to Yahweh for seven days. The seventh day is an assembly set apart to Yahweh, and on that day you must not do any regular work.’” Unleavened Bread remembers the forced march of the Hebrew children of Israel when they escaped from Egypt and went to the Red Sea, headed to Mount Sinai. They had to leave in a hurry, so they could not take time to let their bread rise before baking it. That’s why we eat unleavened bread during this 8-day week.

The third feast occurs during the Feast of Unleavened Bread, it is called the Feast of Firstfruits: Leviticus 23:10-11, “Speak to the people of Israel and say to them, ’When you have come into the land that I will give you, and when you reap its (barley) harvest, then you must bring a sheaf of its firstfruits to the priest. 11 He will raise the sheaf before Yahweh and present it to him, for it to be accepted on your behalf. It is on the day after the Sabbath (that occurs during Unleavened Bread) that the priest will raise it and present it to me.” This Feast of Firstfruits is the proper celebration and memorial of the resurrection of Yeshua from the grave. Yeshua rose to the Father in heaven and presented Himself as the first of the firstfruits offerings, then he also presented to the Father, those that he resurrected when he rose. We do not celebrate a fertility goddess, astarte, or bunnies or eggs or any of that pagan stuff. Yeshua rose at sundown at the end of Sabbath, just in time to be our Firstfruits offering!!


There is no such thing as Yeshua’s last supper, apart from the Passover seder meal. Yeshua celebrated the Passover meal with his disciples. Matthew 26:17-19, “Now on the first day of (the Feast of) unleavened bread the disciples came to Yeshua and said, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover meal (seder)?” 18 He said, “Go into the city to a certain man and say to him, ‘The Teacher says, “My time is at hand. I will keep the Passover (seder meal) at your house with my disciples.”’” 19 The disciples did as Yeshua directed them, and they prepared the Passover meal.”


Mark 14:12-16, “On the first day of unleavened bread, when they sacrificed the Passover lamb, his disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to go to prepare, so you may eat the Passover meal?” 13 He sent two of his disciples and said to them, “Go into the city, and a man bearing a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him. 14 Where he enters a house, follow him in and say to the owner of that house, ‘The Teacher says, “Where is my guest room where I will eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 15 He will show you a large furnished upper room that is ready. Make the preparations for us there. 16 The disciples left and went to the city. They found everything as he had said to them, and they prepared the Passover meal (seder).”


Luke 22:1, 7-13, “Now the Festival of Unleavened Bread was approaching, which is called the Passover. . . . 7 The day of unleavened bread came, on which the Passover lamb must be sacrificed. 8 Yeshua sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare for us the Passover meal, so that we may eat it.” 9 They asked him, “Where do you want us to make preparations?” 10 He answered them, “Listen, when you have entered the city, a man bearing a pitcher of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he goes into. 11 Then say to the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room, where I will eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 12 He will show you a large furnished upper room. Make the preparations there. 13 So they went, and found everything as he had said to them. Then they prepared the Passover meal.”


John 13:1-2, “Now it was before the Festival of the Passover. Yeshua knew that his hour had come to go out of this world and go to the Father. Having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. 2 And during the Passover seder meal, the devil had already by now put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, son of Simon, to betray Yeshua.”


We don’t sacrifice a lamb today, because Yeshua has once for all time been sacrificed for us. Yeshua has fulfilled the Feast of Passover and He is our Unleavened Bread and Firstfruits offering. Let’s see how the early congregation celebrated this feast as explained by the Apostle Paul in 1 Corinthians 11:17-34, “But in the following instructions, I do not praise you. For when you come together, it is not for the better but for the worse. 18 For in the first place, I hear that when you come together in the congregation, there are divisions among you, and in part I believe it. 19 For there must also be factions among you, so that those who are approved may be recognized among you. 20 For when you come together, it is not the Lord’s Passover seder meal that you eat. 21 When you eat, each one eats his own food before the others have their meal. One is hungry, and another becomes drunk. 22 Do you not have houses to eat and to drink in? Do you despise the congregation of Yahweh and humiliate those who have nothing? What should I say to you? Should I praise you? I will not praise you for this! 23 For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that Lord Yeshua, on the night when he was betrayed, took unleavened bread. 24 After he had given thanks, he broke it and said, “This is my body, which is for you. Do this to remember me.” (Passover is an annual memorial feast) 25 In the same way he took the cup during the seder meal, and he said, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this as often as you drink it, to remember me.” 26 For once every year when you eat this unleavened bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes. 27 Whoever, therefore, eats the unleavened bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner, will be guilty of the body and the blood of the Lord. 28 Let a person examine himself first, and in this way let him eat of the unleavened bread and drink of the cup. 29 For he who eats and drinks without discerning the body, eats and drinks judgment to himself. 30 That is why many among you are weak and ill, and some of you have died. 31 But if we examine ourselves, we will not be judged. 32 But when we are judged by the Lord, we are disciplined, so that we may not be condemned along with the world. 33 Therefore, my brothers, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 34 If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that when you come together it will not be for judgment. . . .”


You may certainly roast a lamb or any other clean meat that you desire and can afford to have at your Passover seder meal. For believers, we know that ham, or pork of any kind and any seafood is out. Only fish with fins and scales can be considered. See Leviticus 11 for the rundown on kosher meats.


We celebrate with the right attitude, a humble, repentant and grateful heart. We will be celebrating this Feast for all eternity, so you might as well get used to it now. And remember, Yeshua is currently fasting from this feast and has been for almost 2,000 years. He’s waiting to celebrate with us in his first year back on earth! Matthew 26:26-30, “As they were eating the Passover seder meal, Yeshua took unleavened bread, blessed it, and broke it. He gave it to the disciples and said, “Take, eat. This is my body.” 27 He took a cup and gave thanks, and gave it to them and said, “Drink it, all of you. 28 For this is my blood of the covenant that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. 29 But I say to you, I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father’s kingdom.” 30 When they had sung the hallel (Ps. 113-118), they went out to the Mount of Olives.” They sang multiple hymns, the word for hymn here in verse 30 is plural in the Greek. They sang the Jewish traditional Hallel from Psalm 113-118. They worshiped after their meal, before retiring to the Mount of Olives.


Mark 14:25, “Truly I say to you, I will not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of Yahweh.


Luke 22:18, “For I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine again, until the kingdom of Yahweh comes.


Folks, the Kingdom of Yahweh is coming to earth quite soon, I believe in the mid 2020s, at least by 2030. You heard my Jubilee teaching. It won’t be long and we will celebrate Passover with our Messiah, Yeshua HaMashiach, Jesus Christ, during this next upcoming Jubilee Year! Passover is a memorial feast, but it is also very prophetic. Yeshua promises to return to celebrate with us! I can’t wait.


FYI, friends, you can search the internet for Messianic Haggadahs, or the telling, that lays out a full Messianic Passover seder, the order of service. Or, if you write to us, I can email some sample Haggadahs that I’ve collected over the years. Many people write their own, which you can do from these samples. The Jews actually use four cups of wine during the Passover meal. You can celebrate very traditionally, or you can modernize or simplify to your heart’s desire. But as Paul said, 1 Corinthians 5:7-8, “Cleanse yourselves of the old yeast so that you may be new dough, so that you may be unleavened bread. For Messiah, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. 8 So let us then celebrate the festival (continuously, annually, forever!), not with the old yeast, the yeast of bad behavior and wickedness. Instead, let us celebrate with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth.”


Amen, shalom!



I recently mentioned that I hoped to talk/write about the Jubilee again soon. Well, this post is the next installment on Jubilee. Here’s the initial teaching in Leviticus 25:8-22, “You must count off seven Sabbaths of years, that is, seven times seven years, so that there will be seven Sabbaths of years, totaling forty-nine years. 9 Then you must blow a loud trumpet everywhere on the tenth day of the seventh month. On the Day of Atonement you must blow a trumpet throughout all your land. 10 You must set apart the fiftieth year to Yahweh and proclaim liberty throughout the land to all its inhabitants. It will be a Jubilee for you, in which property and slaves must be returned to their families. 11 The fiftieth year will be a Jubilee for you. You must not plant or conduct an organized harvest. Eat whatever grows by itself, and gather the grapes that grow on the unpruned vines. 12 For it is a Jubilee, which will be holy for you. You must eat the produce that grows by itself out of the fields. 13 You must return everyone to his own property in this year of Jubilee. 14 If you sell any land to your neighbor or buy any land from your neighbor, you must not cheat or wrong each other. 15 If you buy land from your neighbor, consider the number of years and crops that can be harvested until the next Jubilee. Your neighbor selling the land must consider that also. 16 A larger number of years until the next Jubilee will increase the value of land, and a smaller number of years until the next Jubilee will decrease the value, because the number of harvests the land will produce for the new owner is related to the number of years before the next Jubilee. 17 You must not cheat or wrong one another; instead, you must honor your Almighty, for I am Yahweh your Almighty. 18 Therefore, you must obey my decrees, keep my laws, and carry them out. Then you will live in the land in safety. 19 The land will yield its produce, and you will eat your fill and live there in safety. 20 You might say, “What will we eat during the seventh year? Look, we cannot plant or gather our produce.” 21 I will command my blessing to come upon you in the sixth year, and it will produce harvest enough for three years. 22 You will plant in the eighth year and continue to eat from the previous years’ produce and the stored food. Until the harvest of the ninth year comes in, you will be able to eat from the provisions stored in the previous years.

There may be a few other Scriptures that have some teaching on the Jubilee, but Leviticus 25 gets you into the basic teaching. When searching the Scriptures, you don’t see that the Hebrew or Israelite or Jewish people ever really celebrated the Jubilee Year per Yahweh’s command.

Yahweh gave me a revelation about Jubilee back in the spring of 2009, right around the turn of the new year. I was beginning or continuing my studies in sacred chronology, biblical chronology, so I was reading in Ezekiel. Ezekiel 1:1-2,In the thirtieth year (of the 50-year Jubilee Cycle), the fourth month, and the fifth day of the month, it came about that I was living among the captives by the Chebar Canal. The heavens opened, and I saw visions of the Almighty. 2 On the fifth day of that month, it was the fifth year of the exile of King Jehoiachin,” Notice, I added the phrase in parentheses “of the 50-year Jubilee Cycle”. That is the revelation that exploded in my head when I read “In the thirtieth year” in Ezekiel 1:1. I will try to insert my spreadsheet showing that I have this 5th year of King Jehoiachin tied to 594 BC. Don’t worry about the year at this point, it will be important later. When the Lord showed me that revelation about Ezekiel’s thirtieth year, I was off in the Spirit for several days, I was not useful to anyone for awhile. I was just meditating and contemplating that Scripture for several days. It was an awesome time with Yahweh and Yeshua. Many students and scholars have tried to explain what Ezekiel meant by the 30th year phrase. Some say it was his birth year, some say it was 30 years from finding the Torah scroll during Josiah’s reign, some thought it might be the 30th year of Jeremiah’s ministry. Nothing fits, except the 30th year of the Jubilee Cycle, as I will show you later in this post. It just resonates in your spirit once you get the revelation.

Now you have to get the context of Ezekiel’s life at the time he wrote this Scripture. He was in captivity, in exile, in Babylon, 500 miles from Jerusalem. He had to be discreet in his writings, prophecies, and teachings. If he had said or written something the Babylonians did not like, they would have killed him.

Ezekiel was a priest, the son of a priest, he knew the Jubilee Cycle! He was literally tracking the Jubilee Cycle on his personal calendar. Possibly, that was his job back at the Temple in Jerusalem. We’ll have to ask him when we meet him! This is pretty amazing, considering that no one else in the world seems to have known then when the Jubilee was, or knows today, when the next Jubilee year will occur. The priests were meticulous in their Temple and Feast calendar work. Ezekiel didn’t just mention the Jubilee here in chapter 1 verse 1 and 2, but he mentioned it in several places with Scriptures that we biblical chronologists call synchronizations. Ezekiel literally marked his book with time synchronizations tied to the captivity year of King Jehoiachin. Notice verse two begins in the 5th year of King Jehoiachin’s captivity. That means Ezekiel and King Jehoiachin were taken in what is known as the Second Deportation in 598 BC, or year 1 of King Jehoiachin’s captivity. Go read Esther 2:5-6 and you will see that Mordecai and possibly baby Esther were taken when Ezekiel and King Jehoiachin were taken to Babylon! We won’t pursue that study today, but it’s a fascinating one.

Let’s begin in 598 BC with 2 Chronicles 36:9-10,Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he began to reign; he reigned three months and ten days in Jerusalem. He did what was evil in the sight of Yahweh. 10 In the spring, after the beginning of the new year, King Nebuchadnezzar sent men and brought him to Babylon, with the valuable things from the temple of Yahweh, and made Zedekiah, his relative, king over Judah and Jerusalem.” and let’s continue with 2 Kings 24:12,and Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, his mother, his servants, his princes, and his officers. The king of Babylon captured him in the eighth year of his own reign.”

As we proceed through time, we come to the twelfth year of King Jehoiachin and Ezekiel’s captivity in Ezekiel 33:21,It happened in the twelfth year, on the fifth day of the tenth month of our captivity, that a fugitive came to me from Jerusalem and said, “The city has been captured!”” This verse identifies the first fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon’s Temple in the summer of 587 BC. This messenger, Ezekiel calls him a fugitive, ran or hiked the 500 miles from the summer of 587 BC and reached Ezekiel in the 10th month, on the 5th day with this sad news that Jerusalem had been captured by the Babylonians. This translates to the 37th year of the Jubilee Cycle.

Many students and scholars put the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon’s Temple in 586 BC. I use 587 BC because I read one of the best studies on chronology ever done by one Dr. Rodger C. Young. He proved 587 BC from several directions, so that’s good enough for me. It’s a solidly proven year, so I use it.

Let’s continue down our timeline and see the next Scripture, Ezekiel 40:1,In the twenty-fifth year of our captivity at the beginning of the year (Rosh Hashanah) on the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after the city was captured, on that same day, the hand of Yahweh was upon me and he took me there.” Notice the two synchronizing passages in this one verse. We see the 25th year of their captivity is tied to the 14th year of Jerusalem’s capture and destruction! Counting down our timeline from 587 BC, that brings us to 574 BC, and the 50th year in the Jubilee Cycle, the JUBILEE YEAR!!

Notice that Ezekiel states he’s at the beginning of the year. In the Hebrew, it literally says Rosh Hashanah. When a Jew says Rosh Hashanah on the 10th day of the month (Yom Kippur), he’s identifying the Jubilee year!! A normal Rosh Hashanah is on the first day of the month, so we know Ezekiel is telling us this is the Jubilee Year, and it matches our timeline exactly! This verse, Ezekiel 40:1, is the only verse in the entire Tanach that states the phrase Rosh Hashanah. I cannot find it anywhere else in the Scriptures! That’s not a coincidence, it’s a point Ruach HaKodesh and Ezekiel were trying to make. Ezekiel literally was making the Jubilee announcement in chapter 40, verse 1. It only took about 2,601 years to get that message into my head. This was my 17th attempt at a Jubilee Timeline. 2601 divided by 17 = 153 fishes! (John 21:11) I finally had my net full to the breaking point!

If we follow this timeline down to the 20th century, we see that according to Ezekiel there was no Jubilee in 1947-48, or in 1967-68. No big deal, those were still significant times for Israel. Nobody has known the Jubilee Cycle since Ezekiel’s time.

If we follow this timeline down to the 21st century, we see that the next Jubilee Year will be in 2027 AD. That means Yeshua could possibly return in 2026 AD, a Shemitah year and 49th year in the Jubilee Cycle, to announce the Jubilee year in 2027, the 50th year. That is an exciting prediction. Recently, Tim McHyde of mentioned he’s leaning toward 2026 as a real possibility for Messiah’s return. I hope I live that long, but that is exciting news. It’s exciting because we are coming to the Deadline folks. We’re coming to the end of all these things. My wife keeps saying we’re in the end at the end. Well, she’s my wife, and she has to be right, right?

Time is running out. Get your life right with Yahweh today. Ask him to forgive you for all your sins and to wash you in the blood of Yeshua. Yeshua will be here in the blink of an eye. I pray we will all be ready to meet him!

Gene Benjamin II

Building, Developing, Programming the Beast

Building, Developing, Programming the Beast

Let’s begin with Scripture that speaks a little about the Beast: Revelation 13:1-18, “Then I saw a beast coming up out of the sea. It had ten horns and seven heads. (Hmm, not human) On its horns were ten crowns, and on each of its heads was a blasphemous name. (Hmm, not human) 2 This beast I saw was like a leopard. Its feet were like a bear’s feet, and its mouth was like a lion’s mouth. (Hmm, not human) The dragon (Satan) gave his power to it, and his throne, and his great authority to rule. 3 One of the beast’s heads appeared to have been killed, but its fatal wound was healed. And the whole earth marveled as they followed the beast. (multiple heads, not human. Possible video game creature?) 4 They also worshiped the dragon, for he had given his authority to the beast. They worshiped the beast, too, and kept saying, “Who is like the beast?” and “Who can fight against it?” (neuter gender in the Greek, it’s an it, not human) 5 The beast was given a mouth that could speak proud words and blasphemies. It was permitted to exercise authority for forty-two months. (most humans are born with a mouth to speak, this is not a human) 6 So the beast opened its mouth to speak blasphemies against Yahweh: blaspheming his name, the place where he lives, and those who live in heaven. (IOT devices, smartphones, and computers can speak today, so who’s teaching them to blaspheme?) 7 The beast was permitted to wage war with the believers and to conquer them. Also, authority was given to it over every tribe, people, language, and ethno-linguistic nation. (Who gives a non-human machine authority to war against believers and non-believers?) 8 All who live on the earth will worship it (neuter gender in Greek, not human), everyone whose name was not written, since the creation of the world, in The Book of Life, which belongs to the Lamb, who had been slaughtered. 9 If anyone has an ear, let him listen. 10 If anyone is to be taken into captivity, into captivity he will go. If anyone is to be killed with a sword, with a sword he will be killed. Here is a call for patient endurance and faith for those who are holy. 11 Then I saw another beast coming up out of the earth. It had two horns like a lamb, and it spoke like a dragon. (horns, not human) 12 It (probably not human either) exercised all the authority of the first beast in its presence, and it (probably not human either) made the earth and those who live on it worship the first beast, the one whose lethal wound had been healed. (self-healing machine?) 13 It (probably not human either) performed mighty miracles. It (probably not human either) even made fire come down on the earth from heaven in front of people. (given supernatural demonic powers?) 14 By the signs it was permitted to do, it deceived those who lived on the earth. (deceived by an AI machine?) It (probably not human) told them to make an image in honor of the beast that had the sword wound but lived. 15 It (probably not human) was permitted to give breath to the beast’s image so that the image would even speak and cause all who refused to worship the beast to be killed. (A third beast? Wow, hard to wrap my head around breathing machines.) 16 It (probably not human) also forced everyone, unimportant and mighty, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on the right hand or on the forehead. 17 It was impossible for anyone to buy or sell unless he had the mark of the beast, that is, the number representing its name. (it, not human) 18 This calls for wisdom. If anyone has insight, let him calculate the number of the beast. For it is the number of a human being. Its number is 666.” (it, not human)

So, how is it possible for a non-human machine to have a number of a human? Or, better yet, why would a non-human machine have a number of a human? Maybe, the number identifies the programmer of the Algorithm? Or, maybe the machine is so life-like AI, that it has been given citizenship and required to get a human identification number? Saudia Arabia has already done that:

Up until this week, for 45 years, I’ve believed the Anti-Messiah, the Beast, was a human. I don’t believe that any longer. I believe the Beast will be an AI robotic machine algorithm. It will be nothing more than a computer program, an app. Unfortunately, it will be malware forced onto every digital device in the world and outer space, all connected over the internet. How it beats us up and gets us killed, I’m not sure I want to know. It could be a radio burst or some other 5G type electronic wave emission that fries our brains.

Want to watch a creepy video? Go onto Search for “Jillian Blackwell PageOne”. Look at the video where she asks the Google Home device to tell her who is Allah, Buddha, Brahman, New Age, Jesus Christ, Jesus. It explains most terms, but doesn’t even understand the terms Jesus Christ or Jesus!! That sounds like blasphemy to me.

You may want to go onto also and sign up for a free account. They’re over at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Yesterday, on the DirectTV Trunews segment we watched a video clip of a humanistic Israeli guy, Dr. Yuval Harari, telling of the ultimate Algorithm that is being developed that will rule us all. It will have implants into humans to monitor our feelings, thoughts, physical vitals, etc. and tell us more about our selves than we could ever want to know. A real scary fellow. I couldn’t find the clip on their website, so I can’t put a link here. Sorry. Dr. Harari’s talk may eventually show up on his website: It may show up on the World Economic Forum’s website eventually also,

Folks, they’re building the Beast today, right now, as we breathe. Brainy computer programmers are creating an algorithm that will easily fulfill the requirements of the Revelation 13 Beast. Anyone know a geek with an online identity, or avatar, or call sign, or screen name of 666? You may want to unfriend, or distance yourself from that person, or thing. You may be able to solve the riddle of verse 18, if you can find the name of the lead programmer on this AI ALGORITHM project. There could be hundreds, if not thousands, of programmers writing many algorithms that will be included in the Beast Algorithm. Enjoy the challenge.


The Deadline – Part 1

The Deadline – Part 1

All Scripture taken from the Son Of Man Bible, SOMB.bblx e-Sword computer Bible module, available at

All prophecy teachers have a timeline that they teach from and are trying to perfect and workout as the end of time draws ever closer. I can’t see into the future, so I’m not real good at timelines, but I have looked at dozens of men’s timelines over my last 45 years of walking with Yeshua. I must admit that I too have a timeline, but not just one, I have 16 timelines, and not one of them is perfect or very predictive at this time. I haven’t spent time with my chronology timelines lately as I’ve been a little busy publishing three electronic Bibles. Since Yahweh’s year is drawing to a close in a couple months, I’m going to dip my toe in the prophetic waters and look at some scriptures to see if we can discern where we are on His timeline. But did you know Yahweh has a Deadline? Yahweh’s deadline is the Yeshua Advent 2.0. He has to send Yeshua back to earth soon, that’s Yahweh’s Deadline. Yahweh is running out of time. The people on earth are running out of time.


If you want to read some solid and well-balanced end-time prophecy studies, may I suggest you read Tim McHyde’s website: Sign up for his email newsletters. He has a timeline. Another guy that has a good timeline is Stephen Anderson of the Faithful Word Baptist Church in Tempe, Arizona. You can find Pastor Anderson on youtube.


Matthew 24:1-5, “Yeshua went out from the temple and was going on his way. His disciples came to him to point out to him the buildings of the temple. 2 But he answered and said to them, “Do you not see all these things? Truly I say to you, not one stone will be left on another that will not be torn down.” [prophecy fulfilled in 70 AD] 3 As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately and said, “Tell us, when will these things happen? What will be the sign of your coming [Yeshua Advent 2.0] and of the end of the age?” 4 Yeshua answered and said to them, “Be careful that no one leads you astray. 5 For many will come in my name. They will say, ‘I am the Messiah,’ and will lead many astray.”

1 – We see that the first end-time clue that Yeshua gives is massive worldwide deception. I believe that this has been happening over the past 25-30 years already. The mainstream media has turned from telling news to promoting political propaganda. Everything you hear on mainstream media today is carefully scripted propaganda from the globalist elite. If you don’t believe that, you already prove Yeshua’s first point about the end-times, you are deceived. That word deceive in the Greek is a fascinating word, it has three meanings. It means to cause to roam from safety, truth, and virtue. Over this last generation, the world has clearly roamed from safety in Yahweh, the truth of Yahweh, and the morality of Yahweh. If you don’t believe that, then you are deceived, proving again Yeshua’s first point. All lost pagans are deceived and most of Yahweh’s professing children are deceived. I believe Yeshua’s first point is firmly established in our world today. Deception is the bedrock condition of our society.

2 – So, let’s look at Yeshua’s second point in Matthew 24:6, “You will hear of wars and reports of wars. See that you are not troubled, for these things must happen; but the end is not yet.” Since World War II, the United Nations has caused or been involved in well over 250 wars, in one generation. America has not been involved in or won a war since WWII. Our military is now just a global police force working for the global elite. The world-wide deception runs deep. Our military does not and has not fought for American freedom since World War II. The deception is quite complete. But notice Yeshua said the end is not yet.

So, is there a war or wars that we can look at that will begin the end-times? Several are listed in Scripture. Tim McHyde points to the Psalm 83 war. That is a Middle East war of Muslim nations plotting and attacking Israel. Israel has been in this war for about 70 years already, and it will only get worse. The next round could devastate Israel.

One battle that stands out in this end-time is the Isaiah 17:1 nuking of Damascus. That hasn’t happened yet either, though Damascus today is pretty close to a heap of ruins, due to the Syrian civil war. This could be part of the Psalm 83 war.

Another battle that comes to mind concerns Egypt. See Ezekiel 29:1-16. As far as any historians know, Egypt has never been uninhabited for forty years in all human history, yet. That sounds like nuclear or chemical or biological warfare. That could be part of the Psalm 83 war also.

The Gog Magog wars are coming also, see Ezekiel 38-39. Tim McHyde has a great study on these wars. I tend to agree with Tim in that the Ezekiel 39 war is the soon-coming Gog Magog war. Ezekiel 38 is the Gog Magog war coming 1,000 years from now.

I like the war talked about in Daniel 8. Let’s read through it: . . . Dan 8:1-27, “In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar, I, Daniel, had a vision appear to me, after the one that appeared to me at first. 2 I saw in the vision, as I was looking, that I was in the fortified city of Susa in the province of Elam. I saw in the vision that I was beside the Ulai Canal. 3 I looked up and saw before me a ram with two horns, standing beside the canal. One horn was longer than the other, but the longer one grew more slowly than the shorter and was passed up in length by it. 4 I saw the ram charging west, then north, and then south; no other animal could stand before him. None of them was able to rescue anyone out of his hand. He did whatever he wanted, and he became great. 5 As I was thinking about this, I saw a male goat come from the west, who went across the surface of the whole earth, running fast, not seeming to touch the ground. The goat had a large horn between his eyes. 6 He came to the ram who had two horns, I had seen the ram standing on the bank of the canal, and the goat ran toward the ram in a powerful rage. 7 I saw the goat come close to the ram. He was very angry at the ram, and he hit the ram and broke off its two horns. The ram was powerless to stand before him. The goat knocked him down to the ground and trampled on him. There was no one who could rescue the ram from his power. 8 Then the goat became very large. But when he became strong, the large horn was broken, and in its place four other large horns grew up that pointed toward the four winds of the heavens. 9 Out of one of them grew another horn, little at first, but which became very large in the south, in the east, and in the land of beauty. 10 It became so large as to engage in war with the army of heaven. Some of that army and some of the stars were thrown down to the earth, and it trampled on them. 11 Until the commander of the army made himself greater than he (the little horn), and the commander will offer the continual burnt offering, and the commander will perfectly purify the place of his (Messiah’s) sanctuary. 12 Because of rebellion, the army will be given over to the goat’s horn, on account of the continual burnt offering. The horn will throw truth down to the ground, and it will succeed in what it does. 13 Then I heard a holy one speaking and another holy one answering him, “How long will these things last, this vision about the burnt offering, the sin that brings destruction, the handing over of the sanctuary, and heaven’s army being trampled on?” 14 He said to me, “It will last for 2,300 evenings and mornings (that’s a little over 6 years and 4 months on a 360 day year/30 day month prophetic calendar). After that the sanctuary will be put right.” 15 When I, Daniel, had seen the vision, I tried to understand it. Then there stood before me one who looked like a man. 16 I heard a man’s voice calling between the banks of the Ulai Canal. He said, “Gabriel, help this man understand the vision.” 17 So he came near where I stood. When he came, I was frightened and prostrated myself on the ground. He said to me, Understand, son of man, that the vision is for the time of the end.” 18 When he spoke to me, I fell into a deep sleep with my face to the ground. Then he touched me and made me stand up. 19 He said, See, I will show you what will happen later in the time of wrath, because the vision concerns the appointed time for the end. 20 As for the ram you saw, the one that had two horns, they are the kings of Media (Iraq) and Persia (Iran). 21 The male goat is the king of Greece (the West). The large horn between his eyes is the first (or #1) king. 22 As for the horn that was broken, in the place of which four others arose, four kingdoms will arise from his ethno-linguistic nation, but not with his great power. 23 At the latter time of those kingdoms, when the transgressors shall have reached their limit, a grim-faced king, one who is very intelligent, will arise. 24 His power will be great, but not by his own power. He will be amazing in what he destroys; he will act and succeed. He will destroy powerful people, people among the holy ones. 25 By his craftiness he will make deceit prosper under his hand. He will become great in his own mind. He will unexpectedly destroy many people. He will even rise up against the King of kings, and he will be broken, but not by any human hand. 26 The vision about the evenings and mornings that has been told is true. But seal up the vision, for it refers to many days in the future. 27 Then I, Daniel, was overcome and lay weak for several days. Then I got up, and went about the king’s business. But I was appalled by the vision, and there was no one who understood it.”

I certainly don’t understand all of it, either, but we do see that this vision is for the end of time, close to the deadline, at the time of wrath, which occurs at the end of the Great Tribulation. Some nation, like America, is going to fly across the ocean and attack Iraq and Iran. We attacked Iraq in 1990 and again in 2003. Any moment now, we will see a war between America and Iran. Our Western Allies may be involved also. We have seen a partial fulfillment of this vision in our attacks on Iraq. We are waiting for the other combat boot to drop on Iran. Iran is going to do something soon to enrage America. Watch and pray for this war to happen soon.


DEBT – Strong’s # 4855, 4859

DEBT – Strong’s # 4855, 4859

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The Ruach just showed me this morning that debt is Satan’s counterfeit prosperity. In reality, it is bondage, which Yahweh would never put on anyone.

Romans 13:7-8, “Pay to everyone what is owed to them: tax to whom tax is due; toll to whom toll is due; respect to whom respect is due; honor to whom honor is due. 8Owe no one anything, except to love one another. For he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the Torah.” If you are in debt, pay your way back out, let Yahweh bless you to pay it off, expect a miracle. Follow Yahweh’s principles of financial success. Sow your financial seed into good ministries, like ours!! And expect a hundredfold return on your planting. Pray over your giving and expect Yahweh to increase you.

Proverbs 22:7, “Rich people rule over poor people and one who borrows is a servant to the one who lends.” By taking out bank loans or using credit cards, we end up serving the international banksters. In this verse, the Hebrew word for borrow and lend is the same Hebrew word! Talk about a play on words. They are opposite ends of the same sharp stick. The rich man has the money to loan out, the poor man always needs money, that’s why they get hooked into taking loans or succumb to the temptation of using credit cards. The real need to is to grow up and follow Yahweh’s word and ways. If you do take out a loan, sow some of the proceeds into a good ministry, like ours!! Expect Yahweh to return to you an over abundance, pressed down, shaken together, and running over!

Psalm 37:21, “The wicked person borrows but does not repay, but the righteous person is generous and gives.” Never take out a loan without the good, moral intention to pay it back. DO NOT use a credit card if you have no intention of paying it back, that is wickedness. You will curse yourself and bring Yahweh’s judgment upon yourself.

Matthew 6:24, “No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or else he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You cannot serve Yahweh and wealth.” Avarice, treasure, riches, personified or deified and opposed to Yahweh. Folks, this is a boundary Scripture, choose ye today whom ye will serve, as for me and my house, we will serve Yahweh. This is an absolute truth, you CANNOT serve wealth and Yahweh at the same time. It’s one or the other. Make up your mind whom you will serve. My suggestion, grow up and follow Yahweh, the Giver of life eternal.

Ecclesiastes 5:5, “It is better not to make a vow than to make one that you do not carry out.” If you contract to pay back a loan, do it. If you promise, fulfill your promise. If you make an agreement to accept money from a lender, make sure you pay it back. That should be your full and whole-hearted intention. If you don’t think you’ll be able to pay it back, refuse to take the money!! Grow a backbone and just say no to loans of any kind!

Proverbs 21:5, “The plans of the diligent lead only to prosperity, but everyone who acts too quickly comes only to poverty.” Think before borrowing or using the credit card. Do you really need the item, or is it really just another want? The quick way out is not always the righteous way out. Impulse buying will get you into trouble. Be filled with the Ruach and do not fulfill the lust of the flesh. Self-control is one of the fruits of Ruach Ha’Kodesh.

Proverbs 13:11, “Wealth dwindles away when there is too much vanity, but the one who makes money by working with his hands will make his money grow.” Here’s the English Brenton Septuagint: “Wealth gotten hastily with iniquity is diminished: but he that gathers for himself with godliness shall be increased. The righteous is merciful, and lends.” Compound interest is one way to grow wealth, another way is to donate into the Kingdom. Giving into the Kingdom of Yahweh is how you guarantee your financial future. I believe our ministry is a good ground ministry, try us out and trust Yahweh to return a hundredfold harvest back to you! Pray over your giving.

Deuteronomy 15:6, “For Yahweh your Almighty will bless you, as he promised you; you will lend to many ethno-linguistic nations, but you will not borrow (take a pledge from them); you will rule over many ethno-linguistic nations, but they will not rule over you.” Borrow is the same word as lend in the Hebrew, # 5670. This verse may be saying to lend without taking anything as a pledge of repayment or witness to the transaction. In other words, just give away the money or item to the nations!! We are to become the pawn shop owners of this planet, but we are not to take people’s goods as a pledge that they’ll pay us back. Just give them the money they need and let them keep their pledge!! Own the pawn shop, but take no property to stock your shelves, only have a full safe full of Yahweh’s money to give away! This is truly walking in Yahweh’s blessing. Be a banker that gives money away. Be a loan shark that gives money away. Be a pawn shop owner that gives money away. That is what this verse is saying. Only a person blessed by Yahweh will be able to fulfill this verse.

Proverbs 17:18, “A man having no sense makes binding promises and becomes responsible for his neighbor’s debts.” In other words, do not co-sign other people’s loans or promissory notes. Do not become surety or guarantor of other people’s debt. It is a fool’s folly.

Deuteronomy 28:12, “Yahweh will open to you his storehouse of the heavens to give the rain for your land at the right time, and to bless all the work of your hand; you will lend to many ethno-linguistic nations, but you will not borrow.” This blessing is contrasted with the want, lack, and poverty shown in Deut. 28:44, which causes one to borrow, especially at interest. (Deut. 28:44, “He will lend to you, but you will not lend to him; he will be the head, and you will be the tail.”) Again, the word lend and borrow are the same in the Hebrew, but it’s word # 3867. In other words, give to others without any obligation on their part of having to pay it back!! Freely give! No obligation, no pledge, no witness, no record of the transaction, no accounting!! The angels are doing Yahweh’s accounting of your finances in heaven.

Proverbs 22:26-27, “Do not be one who strikes hands in making a pledge, or who puts up security for debts. 27If you lack the means to pay, what could stop someone from taking away your bed from under you?” Do not co-sign loans for friends or family!! Debt here means a loan with interest, or usury. As we’ve already said, do not become surety or responsible for other people’s loans or financial obligations.

Proverbs 11:15, “Whoever guarantees a loan for a stranger will surely suffer harm, but the one who hates giving a pledge in that kind of promise is safe.

Deuteronomy 15:1-2, “At the end of every seven years, you must cancel debts. 2This is the manner of the release: Every creditor will cancel that which he has lent to his neighbor; he will not demand it from his neighbor or his brother because Yahweh’s cancellation of debts has been proclaimed.” Release the debt, drop the exaction of repayment. This is the theme of the seventh year, the Shemitah! Every nation on earth needs this law on the books, at the national, state, and local level.

Proverbs 6:6-8, “Look at the ant, you lazy person, consider her ways, and be wise. 7It has no commander, officer, or ruler, 8yet it prepares its food in the summer and during the harvest it stores up what it will eat.” Sow and reap, prepare and harvest. There is no harvest without preparing the soil, sowing the seed, and cultivating the field, i.e. pulling the weeds, etc. We cultivate by praying over our gifts and sowing. Sow, pray, and trust Yahweh with the harvest. It’s all supernatural.

Proverbs 27:12, “A prudent man sees trouble and hides himself, but the naive people go on and suffer because of it.” This means to foresee into the future of the path you’re on. Learn to watch, discern, and pray about everything.

Proverbs 27:23-24, “Be sure you know the condition of your flocks and be concerned about your herds, 24for wealth is not forever. Does a crown endure for all generations?” Be a good steward of what Yahweh gives you. He is the Owner, we are the servants. Pay attention to your business and to Yahweh’s business. No guarantee that you will keep your wealth, so sow your financial seed wisely.

1 Corinthians 16:2, “On the first of the weeks counting toward Pentecost, each of you is to put something aside and store it up as you are able. Do this so that there will be no collections when I come.” SAVINGS. Save up for future needs. Save up cash, so you won’t have to borrow or use credit cards in the future. Yahweh’s economy is a cash-based economy. Deal with it, live with it.

Psalm 112:5, “It goes well for the man who deals graciously and lends money, who conducts his affairs with good judgment.” This good man will be blessed as he extends grace and favor to his fellow man. Learn to be a giver.

Ecclesiastes 5:10, “Anyone who loves silver will not be satisfied with silver, and anyone who loves wealth always wants more. This, too, is vapor.” The love of money or wealth will get you into trouble. How do wealthy people get more? Many borrow or use credit cards!! Listen to other meanings of that word for wealth: noise, tumult, crowd, disquietude, roar, murmur, sound. That does not sound like a peaceful life to me.

Hebrews 13:5, “Let your conduct be free from the love of money. Be content with the things you have, for Yahweh himself has said, “I will never leave you, nor will I forsake you.”” Contentment in Yahweh is great gain. I’ll take peace, wellness, and wholeness, or shalom, any day over the love of wealth.

Matthew 6:31-33, “Therefore, do not be anxious and say, ‘What will we eat?’ or, ‘What will we drink?’ or, ‘What clothes will we wear?’ 32For the ethno-linguistic nations search for these things, and your heavenly Father knows that you need them. 33But seek first the kingdom of Yahweh and his righteousness and all these things will be given to you.” Don’t worry, you can’t change anything by worrying. Let go and let Yahweh have control of your life. He’ll take good care of you. TRUST Yahweh with your life.

Philippians 4:11-13, “I am not saying this because I am in need. For I have learned to be content in all circumstances. 12I know what it is to be poor, and I also know what it is to have plenty. In every way and in all things I have learned the secret of how to be well-fed or to be hungry, and how to have an abundance or to be in need. 13I can do all things through him who strengthens me.” Relax, you’re in good hands. Be content and walk humbly with your Creator, whether you are rich or poor. Life does not consist of what you possess. Life is a lot more than stuff.

Exodus 22:14, “If a man borrows any animal from his neighbor and the animal is injured or dies without the owner being with it, the other man must surely make restitution.” You break it, you buy it. If you mess up or destroy other’s property, make it right.

Deuteronomy 28:1, “If you listen carefully to the voice of Yahweh your Almighty so as to keep all his commandments that I am commanding you today, Yahweh your Almighty will set you above all the other ethno-linguistic nations of the earth.” It is better to be above than beneath. We want to be the head not the tail. We want to be the lender, not the borrower. You do not want to be the servant of international banksters.

1 Timothy 6:10, “For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evil. Some people who desire it have been misled away from the faith and have pierced themselves with much grief.” Loving money will lead you away from loving Yahweh and Yeshua. Loving money can cause you to lose your soul. What are you willing to do for money? Can you be bought? Can you be tempted with money? A mature believer is not tempted by money.

Luke 14:28, “For which of you, who desires to build a tower, does not first sit down and count the cost to calculate if he has what he needs to complete it?” Having it means you’ve raised the capital, not borrowed, or used credit cards, you’ve saved for it. This thought is concluded in verse 33, “So therefore, any one of you who does not give up all that he has cannot be my disciple.” You don’t own debt, it owns you. You usually can’t give up debt, it can keep you from following Yeshua. You become an indentured servant to the lender.

Proverbs 13:22, “A good person leaves an inheritance for his grandchildren, but a sinner’s wealth is stored up for the righteous person.” This is a different form of wealth, it means strength, ability, force, army, might. All the financial power that sinners possess today is reserved for us, the righteous. We’ll get it all someday. We inherit the kingdom, not the sinners.

Matthew 5:42, “Give to anyone who asks you, and do not turn away from anyone who wishes to borrow from you.” Here, the giving and borrowing are two different words. Give freely from yourself. The borrower here is taking out a loan with interest, hopefully not with usury. Usury is an exorbitant amount of interest, like you find with credit cards and payday loans. They should be outlawed. Learn to be a gracious giver.

Romans 6:23, “For the wages of sin are death, but the free gift of Yahweh is eternal life in Messiah Yeshua our Lord.” With our sinful wealth all we’ve earned is death. Without Yahweh’s gift of eternal life, it doesn’t matter whether or not we’re rich or have earned any wages of any kind in this world. It’s all for naught without Yeshua. By sinning you earn wages, which when paid, is death. Instead, repent of your sin and work for Yahweh, His reward is much greater, it’s life forevermore!! You make the choice, do you want to work for the worldly, devilish Return On Investment or do you want to be a believer who works toward Yeshua’s Reward Of Inheritance? One ROI is Satan’s counterfeit prosperity, one ROI is Yahweh’s eternal reward. Pick one. Choose life.

Son Of Man Bible – Word Processing Version




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First Covenant

The First Book of Moses Called



The Creation of the World

IN the beginning, the Almighty created the heavens and the earth.

2 The earth was without form and empty. Darkness was upon the surface of the deep. The Ruach of the Almighty was moving above the surface of the waters.

3 The Almighty said, “Let there be light,” and there was light.

4 The Almighty saw the light, that it was good. He divided the light from the darkness.

5 The Almighty called the light “day,” and the darkness he called “night.” This was evening and morning, the first day.

6 The Almighty said, “Let there be an expanse between the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.”

7 The Almighty made the expanse and divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse. It was so.

8 The Almighty called the expanse “sky.” This was evening and morning, the second day.

9 The Almighty said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together to one place, and let the dry land appear.” It was so.

10 The Almighty called the dry land “earth,” and the gathered waters he called “seas.” He saw that it was good.

11 The Almighty said, “Let the earth sprout vegetation: Plants yielding seed and fruit trees bearing fruit whose seed is in the fruit, each according to its own kind.” It was so.

12 The earth produced vegetation, plants producing seed after their kind, and trees bearing fruit whose seed was in it, after their kind. The Almighty saw that it was good.

13 This was evening and morning, the third day.

14 The Almighty said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to divide the day from the night and let them be as signs, for appointed times, for days and years.

15 Let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light upon the earth.” It was so.

16 The Almighty made the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light, the stars, to rule the night.

17 The Almighty set them in the expanse of the sky to give light upon the earth,

18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness. The Almighty saw that it was good.

19 This was evening and morning, the fourth day.

20 The Almighty said, “Let the waters be filled with great numbers of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth in the expanse of the sky.”

21 The Almighty created the great sea creatures, as well as every living creature after its kind, creatures that move and which fill the waters everywhere, and every winged bird after its kind. The Almighty saw that it was good.

22 The Almighty blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas. Let birds multiply on the earth.”

23 This was evening and morning, the fifth day.

24 The Almighty said, “Let the earth produce living creatures, each according to its own kind, livestock, creeping things, and beasts of the earth, each according to its own kind.” It was so.

25 The Almighty made the beasts of the earth after their kind, the livestock after their kinds, and everything that creeps upon the ground after its kind. He saw that it was good.

26 The Almighty said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness. Let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.”

27 The Almighty created man in his own image. In his own image he created him. Male and female he created them.

28 The Almighty blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful, and multiply. Fill the earth, and subdue it. Have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the birds of the sky, and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.”

29 The Almighty said, “See, I have given you every plant yielding seed which is upon the surface of all the earth, and every tree with fruit which has seed in it. They will be food to you.

30 To every beast of the earth, to every bird of the heavens, and to everything that creeps upon the earth, and to every creature that has the breath of life I have given every green plant for food.” It was so.

31 The Almighty saw everything that he had made. Behold, it was very good. This was evening and morning, the sixth day.


The Seventh Day, Yehovah Rests

THEN the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the living things that filled them.

2 On the seventh day the Almighty came to the end of his work which he had done, and so he rested on the seventh day from all his work.

3 The Almighty blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it he rested from all his work which he had done in his creation.

The Creation of Man and Woman

4 These were the events concerning the heavens and the earth, when they were created, on the day that Yehovah Almighty made the earth and the heavens.

5 No bush of the field was yet in the earth, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for Yehovah Almighty had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was no man to cultivate the ground.

6 But a mist went up from the earth and watered the whole surface of the ground.

7 Yehovah Almighty formed man from the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being.

8 Yehovah Almighty planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed.

9 Out of the ground Yehovah Almighty made every tree to grow that is pleasant to the sight and good for food. This included the tree of life that was in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

10 A river went out of Eden to water the garden. From there it divided and became four rivers.

11 The name of the first is Pishon. It is the one which flows throughout the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold.

12 The gold of that land is good. There are also bdellium and the onyx stone.

13 The name of the second river is Gihon. This one flows throughout the whole land of Cush.

14 The name of the third river is Tigris, which flows east of Asshur. The fourth river is the Euphrates.

15 Yehovah Almighty took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to work it and to maintain it.

16 Yehovah Almighty commanded the man, saying, “From every tree in the garden you may freely eat.

17 But from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you may not eat, for on the day that you eat from it, you will surely die.

18 Then Yehovah Almighty said, “It is not good that the man should be alone. I will make him a helper suitable for him.”

19 Out of the ground Yehovah Almighty formed every animal of the field and every bird of the sky. Then he brought them to the man to see what he would call them. Whatever the man called each living creature, that was its name.

20 The man gave names to all the livestock, to all the birds of the sky, and to every beast of the field. But for the man himself there was found no helper suitable for him.

21 Yehovah Almighty caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, so the man slept. Yehovah Almighty took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh where he took the rib.

22 With the rib that Yehovah Almighty had taken from the man, he made a woman and brought her to the man.

23 The man said, “This time, this one is bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh. She will be called ‘woman,’ because she was taken out of man.”

24 Therefore, a man will leave his father and his mother, he will be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh.

25 They were both naked, the man and his wife, but were not ashamed.


The Fall

NOW the serpent was more shrewd than any other beast of the field which Yehovah Almighty had made. He said to the woman, “Has Yehovah really said, ‘You must not eat from any tree of the garden’?”

2 The woman said to the serpent, “We may eat the fruit from the trees of the garden,

3 but concerning the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, the Almighty said, ‘You may not eat it, nor may you touch it, or you will die.’”

4 The serpent said to the woman, You will surely not die.

5 For Yehovah knows that the day you eat it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like Yehovah, knowing good and evil.

6 When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took some of its fruit and ate it. Then she also gave some to her husband who was with her, and he ate it.

7 The eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked. They sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.

8 They heard the sound of Yehovah Almighty walking in the garden in the cool of the day, so the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of Yehovah Almighty among the trees of the garden.

9 Yehovah Almighty called to the man and said to him, “Where are you?”

10 The man said, “I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked. So I hid myself.”

11 Yehovah said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

12 The man said, “The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me fruit from the tree, and I ate it.”

13 Yehovah Almighty said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” The woman said, “The serpent lied to me, and I ate.”

14 Yehovah Almighty said to the serpent, “Because you have done this, cursed are you alone among all the livestock and all the beasts of the field. It is on your stomach that you will go, and it is dust that you will eat all the days of your life.

15 I will put hostility between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed. He will crush your head, and you will bruise his heel.

16 To the woman he said, “I will greatly multiply your pain in having children; it is in pain that you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, but he will rule over you.”

17 To Adam he said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree, concerning which I commanded you, saying, ‘You may not eat from it,’ cursed is the ground because of you; through painful work you will eat from it all the days of your life.

18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field.

19 By the sweat of your face you will eat bread, until you return to the ground, for out of it you were taken. For dust you are, and to dust you will return.

20 The man called his wife’s name Eve because she was the mother of all the living.

21 Yehovah Almighty made for Adam and for his wife garments of skins and clothed them.

22 Yehovah Almighty said, “Now the man has become like one of us, knowing good and evil. So now he must not be allowed to reach out with his hand, take from the tree of life, eat it, and live forever.”

23 Therefore, Yehovah Almighty sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he had been taken.

24 So Yehovah drove the man out of the garden, and he placed cherubim at the east of the garden of Eden, and a flaming sword that turned every way, in order to guard the way to the tree of life.


Cain and Abel

THE man slept with Eve his wife. She conceived and gave birth to Cain. She said, “I have produced a man with Yehovah’s help.”

2 Then she gave birth to his brother Abel. Now Abel became a shepherd, but Cain cultivated the soil.

3 It came about that in the course of time Cain brought some of the fruit of the ground as an offering to Yehovah.

4 As for Abel, he brought some of the firstborn of his flock and some of the fat. Yehovah accepted Abel and his offering,

5 but Cain and his offering he did not accept. So Cain was very angry, and he scowled.

6 Yehovah said to Cain, “Why are you angry and why are you scowling?

7 If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what is right, sin crouches at the door and desires to control you, but you must rule over it.

8 Cain spoke to Abel his brother. It came about that while they were in the fields, Cain rose up against Abel his brother and murdered him.

9 Then Yehovah said to Cain, “Where is Abel your brother?” He said, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”

10 Yehovah said, “What have you done? Your brother’s blood is calling out to me from the ground.

11 Now cursed are you from the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother’s blood from your hand.

12 When you cultivate the ground, from now on it will not yield to you its strength. A fugitive and a wanderer you will be in the earth.

13 Cain said to Yehovah, “My punishment is greater than I can bear.

14 Indeed, you have driven me out this day from this ground, and I will be hidden from your face. I will be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth, and whoever finds me will murder me.

15 Yehovah said to him, “If anyone murders Cain, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold.” Then Yehovah put a mark on Cain, so that if anyone found him, that person would not attack him.

16 So Cain went out from the presence of Yehovah and lived in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.

17 Cain slept with his wife and she conceived. She gave birth to Enoch. He built a city and named it after his son Enoch.

18 To Enoch was born Irad. Irad became the father of Mehujael. Mehujael became the father of Methushael. Methushael became the father of Lamech.

19 Lamech took for himself two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other was Zillah.

20 Adah gave birth to Jabal. He was the father of those who lived in tents who have livestock.

21 His brother’s name was Jubal. He was the father of those who play the harp and pipe.

22 As for Zillah, she bore Tubal Cain, the forger of tools of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal Cain was Naamah.

23 Lamech said to his wives, “Adah and Zillah, listen to my voice; you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say. For I have killed a man for wounding me, a young man for bruising me.

24 If Cain is avenged seven times, then Lamech will be avenged seventy-seven times.

25 Adam slept with his wife again, and she bore another son. She called his name Seth and said, “Yehovah has given me another son in the place of Abel, for Cain murdered him.”

26 A son was born to Seth and he called his name Enosh. At that time people began to call on the name of Yehovah.


Adam’s Descendants to Noah

THIS is the record of the descendants of Adam. On the day that Yehovah created mankind, he made them in his own likeness.

2 Male and female he created them. He blessed them and named them mankind when they were created.

3 When Adam had lived 230 years, he became the father of a son in his own likeness, after his image, and he called his name Seth.

4 After Adam became the father of Seth, he lived seven hundred years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

5 Adam lived 930 years, and then he died.

6 When Seth had lived 205 years, he became the father of Enosh.

7 After he became the father of Enosh, he lived 707 years and became the father of more sons and daughters.

8 Seth lived 912 years, and then he died.

9 When Enosh had lived one hundred and ninety years, he became the father of Kenan.

10 After he became the father of Kenan, Enosh lived 715 years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

11 Enosh lived 905 years, and then he died.

12 When Kenan had lived one hundred and seventy years, he became the father of Mahalalel.

13 After he became the father of Mahalalel, Kenan lived 740 years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

14 Kenan lived 910 years, and then he died.

15 When Mahalalel had lived one hundred and sixty-five years, he became the father of Jared.

16 After he became the father of Jared, Mahalalel lived 730 years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

17 Mahalalel lived 895 years, and then he died.

18 When Jared had lived 162 years, he became the father of Enoch.

19 After he became the father of Enoch, Jared lived eight hundred years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

20 Jared lived 962 years, and then he died.

21 When Enoch had lived one hundred and sixty-five years, he became the father of Methuselah.

22 Enoch walked with Yehovah two hundred years after he became the father of Methuselah. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

23 Enoch lived 365 years.

24 Enoch walked with Yehovah, and then he was gone, for Yehovah took him.

25 When Methuselah had lived 187 years, he became the father of Lamech.

26 After he became the father of Lamech, Methuselah lived 782 years. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

27 Methuselah lived 969 years. Then he died.

28 When Lamech had lived 188 years, he became the father of a son.

29 He called his name Noah, saying, “This one will give us rest from our work and from the painful labor of our hands, which we must do because of the ground that Yehovah has cursed.”

30 Lamech lived 565 years after he became the father of Noah. He became the father of more sons and daughters.

31 Lamech lived 753 years. Then he died.

32 After Noah had lived five hundred years, he became the father of Shem, Ham, and Japheth.


Increasing Corruption on Earth

IT came about when mankind began to multiply on the earth and daughters were born to them,

2 that the sons of the Almighty saw that the daughters of mankind were attractive. They took for themselves wives, any of them that they chose.

3 Yehovah said, “My Ruach will not remain in mankind forever, for they are flesh. They will live 120 years.”

4 Giants were on the earth in those days, and also afterward. This happened when the sons of the Almighty married daughters of men, and they had children with them. These were the mighty men of old, men of renown.

5 Yehovah saw that the wickedness of mankind was great in the earth, and that every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts was only evil continually.

6 Yehovah regretted that he had made mankind on the earth, and it grieved him to his heart.

7 So Yehovah said, “I will wipe away mankind whom I have created from the surface of the earth; both mankind and the larger animals, and creeping things and birds of the heavens, for I am sorry that I have made them.”

8 But Noah found favor in the eyes of Yehovah.

Noah and the Flood

9 These were the events concerning Noah. Noah was a righteous man, and blameless among the people of his time. Noah walked with the Almighty.

10 Noah became the father of three sons: Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

11 The earth was corrupt before the Almighty, and it was filled with violence.

12 The Almighty saw the earth; behold, it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted their way upon the earth.

13 The Almighty said to Noah, “I can see that it is time to put an end to all flesh, for the earth is filled with violence through them. Indeed, I will destroy them with the earth.

14 Make for yourself an ark of laminated wood. Make rooms in the ark, and cover it with pitch within and without.

15 This is how you will make it: the length of the ark 515 feet, the breadth of it 85.83 feet, and the height of it 51.5 feet.

16 Make a roof for the ark, and finish it at 1.72 feet from the top of the side. Place a door in the side of the ark and make a lower, a second, and a third deck.

17 Listen, I am about to bring the flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh that has in it the breath of life from under heaven. Everything that is on the earth will die.

18 But I will establish my covenant with you. You will come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you.

19 Of every living creature of all flesh, two of every kind you must bring into the ark, to keep them alive with you, both male and female.

20 Of the birds after their kind, and of the larger animals after their kind, of every creeping thing of the ground after its kind, two of every sort will come to you, to keep them alive.

21 Gather for yourself every kind of food that is eaten and store it, so that it will be food for you and for them.

22 So Noah did this. According to all that the Almighty commanded him, so he did.


YEHOVAH said to Noah, “Come, you and all your household, into the ark, for I have seen that you are righteous before me in this generation.

2 Of every clean animal you will bring with you seven males and seven females. From the animals that are not clean, of them bring two, the male and his mate.

3 Also of the birds of the sky, bring seven males and seven females, to preserve their offspring upon the surface of all the earth.

4 For in seven days I will cause it to rain upon the earth for forty days and forty nights. I will destroy from off the surface of the ground every living thing that I have made.

5 Noah did all that Yehovah commanded him.

6 Noah was six hundred years old when the flood came upon the earth.

7 Noah, his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives went into the ark together because of the waters of the flood.

8 Clean animals and unclean animals, birds, and everything that creeps upon the ground,

9 two by two, male and female, came to Noah and went into the ark, just as the Almighty had commanded Noah.

10 It came about that after the seven days, the waters of the flood came upon the earth.

11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day, all the fountains of the great deep burst open (possible Axial Pole Shift), and the windows of heaven were opened.

12 The rain began and fell on the earth for forty days and forty nights.

13 On that very same day Noah and his sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and Noah’s wife, and the three wives of his sons with them, entered into the ark.

14 They entered along with each wild animal according to its kind, and each sort of livestock according to its kind, and each creeping thing that creeps upon the earth according to its kind, and every sort of bird according to its kind, each kind of creature with wings.

15 Two of all flesh in which was the breath of life came to Noah and entered into the ark.

16 The animals that went in were male and female of all flesh; they entered in just as the Almighty had commanded him. Then Yehovah shut the door after them.

17 Then the flood came upon the earth for forty days, and the water increased and lifted the ark and raised it above the earth.

18 The waters completely covered over the earth, and the ark floated upon the surface of the water.

19 The waters rose greatly on the earth so that all the high mountains that were under the entire sky were covered.

20 The waters rose fifteen cubits above the tops of the mountains.

21 All living beings that moved upon the earth died: The birds, the livestock, the wild animals, all the living creatures that lived in great numbers upon the earth, and all mankind.

22 All living creatures who lived on the land, who breathed the breath of life through their noses, died.

23 So every living thing that was on the surface of the earth was wiped out, from mankind to the larger animals, to creeping things, and to birds of the sky. They were all destroyed from the earth. Only Noah and those with him in the ark were left.

24 The water did not go down to the earth for a hundred and fifty days.


The Flood Subsides

THE Almighty considered Noah, all the wild animals, and all the livestock that were with him in the ark. The Almighty made a wind blow over the earth, and the waters started going down.

2 The fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were closed, and it stopped raining.

3 The flood waters went down slowly from the earth, and after the end of a hundred and fifty days the waters had gone down.

4 The ark came to rest in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat.

5 The waters continued to go down until the tenth month. On the first day of the month, the tops of the mountains appeared.

6 It came about after forty days that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made.

7 He sent out a raven and it flew back and forth until the waters were dried up from the earth.

8 Then he sent out a dove to see if the waters had gone down from the surface of the earth,

9 but the dove found no place to rest her foot, and she returned to him in the ark, for the waters were still covering the whole earth. He reached out with his hand, and took and brought her into the ark with him.

10 He waited another seven days and again he sent out the dove from the ark.

11 The dove returned to him in the evening. Look! In her mouth was a freshly plucked olive leaf. So Noah knew that the waters had gone down from the earth.

12 He waited another seven days, and sent out the dove again. She did not return again to him.

13 It came about in the six hundred and first year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, that the waters were dried up from off the earth. Noah removed the covering of the ark, looked out, and saw that, behold, the surface of the ground was dry.

14 In the second month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry.

15 The Almighty said to Noah,

16 “Go out of the ark, you, your wife, your sons, and your sons’ wives with you.

17 Take out with you every living creature of all flesh that is with you, the birds, the livestock, and every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth, so that they may grow unto very large numbers of living creatures throughout the earth, be fruitful, and multiply upon the earth.”

18 So Noah went out with his sons, his wife, and his sons’ wives with him.

19 Every living creature, every creeping thing, and every bird, everything that moves on the earth, according to their families, left the ark.

Yehovah’s Covenant with Noah

20 Noah built an altar to Yehovah. He took some of the clean animals and some of the clean birds, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

21 Yehovah smelled the pleasing aroma and said in his heart, “I will not again curse the ground because of mankind, even though the intentions of their hearts are evil from childhood. Nor will I again destroy everything living, as I have done.

22 While the earth remains, seed time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night will not cease.


THEN the Almighty blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth.

2 The fear of you and the dread of you will be upon every living animal on the earth, upon every bird of the sky, upon everything that goes low on the ground, and upon all the fish of the sea. They are given into your hand.

3 Every moving thing that lives will be food for you. Just as I gave you the green plants, I now give you everything.

4 But you must not eat meat with its life, that is its blood, in it.

5 But for your blood, the life that is in your blood, I will require payment. From the hand of every animal I will require it. From the hand of any man, that is, from the hand of one who has murdered his brother, I will require an accounting for the life of that man.

6 Whoever sheds man’s blood, by man will his blood be shed, for it was in the image of the Almighty that he made man.

7 As for you, be fruitful and multiply, spread throughout the earth and multiply on it.

8 Then the Almighty spoke to Noah and to his sons with him, saying,

9 “As for me, listen! I am going to confirm my covenant with you and with your descendants after you,

10 and with every living creature that is with you, with the birds, the livestock, and every creature of the earth with you, from all that came out of the ark, to every living creature on the earth.

11 I hereby confirm my covenant with you, that never again will all flesh be destroyed by the waters of a flood. Never again will there be a flood to destroy the earth.

12 The Almighty said, “This is the sign of the covenant which I am making between me and you and every living creature that is with you, for all future generations:

13 I have set my rainbow in the cloud, and it will be the sign of the covenant between me and the earth.

14 It will come about when I bring a cloud over the earth and the rainbow is seen in the cloud,

15 then I will call to mind my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh. The waters will never again become a flood to destroy all flesh.

16 The rainbow will be in the clouds and I will see it, in order to remember the everlasting covenant between the Almighty and every living creature of all flesh that is on the earth.

Noah’s Descendants

17 Then the Almighty said to Noah, “This is the sign of the covenant that I have confirmed between me and all flesh that is on the earth.”

18 The sons of Noah that came out of the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Ham was the father of Canaan.

19 These three were the sons of Noah, and from these the whole earth was populated.

20 Noah began to be a farmer, and he planted a vineyard.

21 He drank some of the wine and became drunk. He was lying uncovered in his tent.

22 Then Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father and told his two brothers outside.

23 So Shem and Japheth took a robe and laid it upon both their shoulders, and walked backwards and covered the nakedness of their father. Their faces were turned the other way, so they did not see their father’s nakedness.

24 When Noah awoke from his drunkenness, he learned what his youngest son had done to him.

25 So he said, “Cursed be Canaan. May he be a servant to his brothers’ servants.”

26 He also said, “May Yehovah, the Almighty of Shem, be blessed, and may Canaan be his servant.

27 May the Almighty extend the territory of Japheth, and let him make his home in the tents of Shem. May Canaan be his servant.

28 After the flood, Noah lived three hundred fifty years.

29 All the days of Noah were nine hundred fifty years, and then he died.


Ethno-Linguistic Nations Descended from Noah

THESE were the descendants of the sons of Noah, that is, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Sons were born to them after the flood.

2 The sons of Japheth were Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras.

3 The sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah.

4 The sons of Javan were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

5 From these the coastland peoples separated and went into their lands, every one with its own language, according to their clans, by their ethno-linguistic nations.

6 The sons of Ham were Cush, Mizraim, Put, and Canaan.

7 The sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah, and Sabteca. The sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.

8 Cush became the father of Nimrod, who was the first conqueror on the earth.

9 He was a mighty hunter before Yehovah. That is why it is said, “Like Nimrod, a mighty hunter before Yehovah.”

10 The first centers of his kingdom were Babel, Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.

11 Out of that land he went to Assyria and built Nineveh, Rehoboth Ir, Calah,

12 and Resen, which was between Nineveh and Calah. It was a large city.

13 Mizraim became the father of the Ludites, the Anamites, the Lehabites, the Naphtuhites,

14 the Pathrusites, the Casluhites, from whom the Philistines came, and the Caphtorites.

15 Canaan became the father of Sidon, his firstborn, and of Heth,

16 also of the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites,

17 the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites,

18 the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites. Afterward the clans of the Canaanites spread out.

19 The border of the Canaanites was from Sidon, in the direction of Gerar, as far as Gaza, and as one goes toward Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboiim, as far as Lasha.

20 These were the sons of Ham, by their clans, by their languages, in their lands, and in their ethno-linguistic nations.

21 Sons also were born to Shem, the older brother of Japheth. Shem was also the ancestor of all the people of Eber.

22 The sons of Shem were Elam, Asshur, Arpachshad, Lud, and Aram.

23 The sons of Aram were Uz, Hul, Gether, and Meshech.

24 Arpachshad became the father of Cainan, and Cainan became the father of Shelah, and Shelah became the father of Eber.

25 Eber had two sons. The name of the one was Peleg, for in his days the earth was divided. His brother’s name was Joktan.

26 Joktan became the father of Almodad, Sheleph, Hazarmaveth, Jerah,

27 Hadoram, Uzal, Diklah,

28 Obal, Abimael, Sheba,

29 Ophir, Havilah, and Jobab. All these were the sons of Joktan.

30 Their territory was from Mesha, all the way to Sephar, the mountain of the east.

31 These were the sons of Shem, according to their clans and their languages, in their lands, according to their ethno-linguistic nations.

32 These were the clans of the sons of Noah, according to their genealogies, by their ethno-linguistic nations. From these the ethno-linguistic nations separated and went over the earth after the flood.


The Tower of Babel

NOW the whole earth used one language and had the same words.

2 As they journeyed in the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and they settled there.

3 They said to one another, “Come, let us make bricks and bake them thoroughly.” They had brick instead of stone and tar as mortar.

4 They said, “Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower whose top will reach to the sky, and let us make a name for ourselves. If we do not, we will be scattered across the surface of the whole earth.”

5 So Yehovah came down to see the city and the tower which the descendants of Adam had built.

6 Yehovah said, “Look, they are one people with the same language, and they are beginning to do this! Soon nothing that they intend to do will be impossible for them.

7 Come, let us go down and confuse their language there, so that they may not understand each other.

8 So Yehovah scattered them from there across the surface of all the earth and they stopped building the city.

9 Therefore, its name was called Babel, because there Yehovah confused the language of the whole earth and from there Yehovah scattered them abroad over the surface of all the earth.

Shem’s Descendants

10 These were the descendants of Shem. Shem was a hundred years old, and he became the father of Arpachshad two years after the flood.

11 Shem lived five hundred years after he became the father of Arpachshad. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

12 When Arpachshad had lived one hundred and thirty-five years, he became the father of Cainan.

13 Arpachshad lived 430 years after he became the father of Cainan. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died. And Cainan lived a hundred and thirty years and became the father of Shelah; and Canaan lived after he became the father of Shelah, three hundred and thirty years. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

14 When Shelah had lived one hundred and thirty years, he became the father of Eber.

15 Shelah lived 403 years after he became the father of Eber. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

16 When Eber had lived one hundred and thirty-four years, he became the father of Peleg.

17 Eber lived 370 years after he became the father of Peleg. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

18 When Peleg had lived one hundred and thirty years, he became the father of Reu.

19 Peleg lived 209 years after he became the father of Reu. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

20 When Reu had lived one hundred and thirty-two years, he became the father of Serug.

21 Reu lived 207 years after he became the father of Serug. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

22 When Serug had lived one hundred and thirty years, he became the father of Nahor.

23 Serug lived 200 years after he became the father of Nahor. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

24 When Nahor had lived seventy-nine years, he became the father of Terah.

25 Nahor lived 129 years after he became the father of Terah. He also became the father of other sons and daughters, and died.

26 After Terah had lived (seventy) one hundred and thirty one years, he became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran.

Terah’s Descendants

27 Now these were the descendants of Terah. Terah became the father of Abram, Nahor, and Haran, and Haran became the father of Lot.

28 Haran died in the presence of his father Terah in the land of his birth, in Ur of the Chaldeans.

29 Abram and Nahor took wives. The name of Abram’s wife was Sarai and the name of Nahor’s wife was Milcah, a daughter of Haran, who was the father of Milcah and Iscah.

30 Now Sarai was barren; she had no child.

31 Terah took Abram his son, Lot the son of his son Haran, and Sarai his daughter-in-law, his son Abram’s wife, and together they left Ur of the Chaldeans, to go into the land of Canaan. But they came to Haran and stayed there.

32 Terah lived 205 years and then died in Haran.


The Call of Abram

NOW Yehovah said to Abram, “Go from your country, and from your relatives, and from your father’s household, to the land that I will show you.

2 I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you, and make your name great, and you will be a blessing.

3 I will bless those who bless you, but whoever dishonors you I will curse. Through you will all the families of the earth be blessed.

4 So Abram went, as Yehovah had told him to do, and Lot went with him. Abram was seventy-five years old when he left Haran.

5 Abram took Sarai, his wife, Lot, his brother’s son, all their possessions that they had accumulated, and the people that they had acquired in Haran. They left to go into the land of Canaan, and came to the land of Canaan.

6 Abram passed through the land as far as Shechem, to the oak of Moreh. At that time the Canaanites lived in the land.

7 Yehovah appeared to Abram, and said, “To your descendants I will give this land.” So there Abram built an altar to Yehovah, who had appeared to him.

8 From there he moved to the hill country to the east of Bethel, where he pitched his tent, with Bethel to the west and Ai to the east. There he built an altar to Yehovah and called on the name of Yehovah.

9 Then Abram continued journeying, going toward the Negev.

Abram and Sarai in Egypt

10 There was a famine in the land, so Abram went down into Egypt to stay, for the famine was severe in the land.

11 When he was about to enter into Egypt, he said to Sarai his wife, “See here, I know that you are a beautiful woman.

12 When the Egyptians see you they will say, ‘This is his wife,’ and they will kill me, but they will keep you alive.

13 Say that you are my sister, so that it may be well with me because of you, and so that my life will be spared because of you.

14 It came about that when Abram entered into Egypt, the Egyptians saw that Sarai was very beautiful.

15 The princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh, and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s household.

16 Pharaoh treated Abram well for her sake, and gave him sheep, oxen, male donkeys, male servants, female servants, female donkeys, and camels.

17 Then Yehovah afflicted Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai, Abram’s wife.

18 Pharaoh summoned Abram, and said, “What is this that you have done to me? Why did you not tell me that she was your wife?

19 Why did you say, ‘She is my sister,’ so that I took her to be my wife? Now therefore, here is your wife. Take her, and go your way.”

20 Then Pharaoh gave orders to his men concerning him, and they sent him away, along with his wife and all that he had.


Abram and Lot Separate

SO Abram went up from Egypt and went into the Negev, he, his wife, and all that he had. Lot also went with them.

2 Now Abram was very rich in animals, in silver, and in gold.

3 He continued on his journey from the Negev to Bethel, to the place where his tent had been before, between Bethel and Ai.

4 He went to the place where the altar was that he had built previously. Here he called on the name of Yehovah.

5 Now Lot, who was traveling with Abram, also had flocks, herds, and tents.

6 The land was not able to support them both living close together, because their possessions were very many, so that they could not stay together.

7 Also, there was a dispute between the herdsmen of Abram’s animals and the herdsmen of Lot’s animals. The Canaanites and the Perizzites were living in the land at that time.

8 So Abram said to Lot, “Let there be no strife between you and me, and between your herdsmen and my herdsmen; after all, we are family.

9 Is not the whole land before you? Go ahead and separate yourself from me. If you go to the left, then I will go to the right. Or if you go to the right, then I will go to the left.

10 So Lot looked around, and saw that the whole plain of the Jordan was well watered everywhere all the way to Zoar, like the garden of Yehovah, like the land of Egypt. This was before Yehovah destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah.

11 So Lot chose for himself all the plain of the Jordan and traveled east, and the relatives separated from each other.

12 Abram lived in the land of Canaan, and Lot lived among the cities of the plain. He set up his tents as far away as Sodom.

13 Now the men of Sodom were very wicked sinners against Yehovah. (bestiality, homosexuality, lesbianism, LGBTQ)

14 Yehovah said to Abram after Lot had departed from him, “Look from the place where you are standing to the north, south, east, and west.

15 All this land which you see, I will give to you and to your descendants forever.

16 I will make your descendants as abundant as the dust of the earth, so that if a man could count the dust of the earth, then your descendants could also be counted.

17 Arise, walk through the length and breadth of the land, for I will give it to you.

18 So Abram picked up his tent, and came and lived by the oaks of Mamre, which are in Hebron, and there built an altar to Yehovah.


Abram Rescues Lot

IT came about in the days of Amraphel, king of Shinar, Arioch, king of Ellasar, Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and Tidal, king of Goiim,

2 that they made war against Bera, king of Sodom, Birsha, king of Gomorrah, Shinab, king of Admah, Shemeber, king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, also called Zoar.

3 These latter five kings joined together in the Valley of Siddim, also called the Salt Sea.

4 Twelve years they had served Chedorlaomer, but in the thirteenth year they rebelled.

5 Then in the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came and attacked the Rephaim in Ashteroth Karnaim, the Zuzim in Ham, the Emim in Shaveh Kiriathaim,

6 and the Horites in their hill country of Seir, as far as El Paran, which is near the desert.

7 Then they turned and came to En Mishpat, also called Kadesh, and defeated all the country of the Amalekites, and also the Amorites who lived in Hazazon Tamar.

8 Then the king of Sodom, the king of Gomorrah, the king of Admah, the king of Zeboiim, and the king of Bela, also called Zoar, went out and prepared for battle

9 against Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, Tidal, king of Goiim, Amraphel, king of Shinar, Arioch, king of Ellasar; four kings against the five.

10 Now the Valley of Siddim was full of tar pits, and as the kings of Sodom and Gomorrah fled, they fell in there. Those who were left fled to the mountains.

11 So the enemy took all the goods of Sodom and Gomorrah and all their provisions, and went their way.

12 When they went, they also took Lot, Abram’s brother’s son, who was living in Sodom, along with all his possessions.

13 One who had escaped came and told Abram the Hebrew. He was living by the oaks that belonged to Mamre, the Amorite, who was the brother of Eshcol and Aner, who were all allies of Abram.

14 Now when Abram heard that enemies had captured his relative, he led out his 318 trained men who had been born in his house, and he pursued them as far as Dan.

15 He divided his men against them at night and attacked them, and pursued them as far as Hobah, which is north of Damascus.

16 Then he brought back all the possessions, and also brought back his relative Lot and his goods, as well as the women and the other people.

Abram Blessed by Melchizedek

17 After Abram returned from defeating Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him, the king of Sodom went out to meet him at the Valley of Shaveh, also called the King’s Valley.

18 Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought out bread and wine. He was priest of the Almighty Most High.

19 He blessed him saying, “Blessed be Abram by the Almighty Most High, Creator of heaven and earth.

20 Blessed be the Almighty Most High, who has given your enemies into your hand.” Then Abram gave him a tenth of everything.

21 The king of Sodom said to Abram, “Give me the people, and take the goods for yourself.”

22 Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have lifted up my hand to Yehovah, the Almighty Most High, Creator of heaven and earth,

23 that I will not take a thread, a sandal strap, or anything that is yours, so that you can never say, ‘I have made Abram rich.’

24 I will take nothing except what the young men have eaten and the share of the men that went with me. Let Aner, Eshcol, and Mamre take their portion.


Yehovah’s Covenant with Abram

AFTER these things the word of Yehovah came to Abram in a vision, saying, “Fear not, Abram! I am your shield and your very great reward.”

2 Abram said, “Lord Yehovah, what will you give me, since I continue childless, and the heir of my house is Eliezer of Damascus?”

3 Abram said, “Since you have given me no descendant, see, the steward of my house is my heir.”

4 Then, behold, the word of Yehovah came to him, saying, “This man will not be your heir; but rather the one who will come from your own body will be your heir.”

5 Then he brought him outside, and said, “Look toward heaven, and number the stars, if you are able to number them.” Then he said to him, “So will your descendants be.”

6 He believed Yehovah, and he counted it to him as righteousness.

7 He said to him, “I am Yehovah, who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans, to give you this land to inherit it.”

8 He said, “Lord Yehovah, how will I know that I will inherit it?”

9 Then he said to him, “Bring me a heifer three years old, a female goat three years old, a ram three years old, a dove, and a young pigeon.”

10 He brought him all these, and cut them in two, and placed each half opposite the other, but he did not divide the birds.

11 When the birds of prey came down upon the carcasses, Abram drove them away.

12 Then when the sun was going down, Abram fell sound asleep and behold, a deep and terrifying darkness overwhelmed him.

13 Then Yehovah said to Abram, “Know for certain that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will be enslaved and oppressed for four hundred years.

14 I will judge that nation that they will serve, and afterward they will come out with abundant possessions.

15 But you will go to your fathers in peace, and you will be buried in a good old age.

16 In the fourth generation they will come here again, for the iniquity of the Amorites has not yet reached its limit.

17 When the sun had gone down and it was dark, behold, a smoking fire pot and a flaming torch passed between the pieces.

18 On that day Yehovah made a covenant with Abram, saying, “To your descendants I hereby give this land, from the river of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates,

19 the Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kadmonites,

20 the Hethites, the Perizzites, the Rephaites,

21 the Amorites, the Canaanites, the Girgashites, and the Jebusites.


Sarai and Hagar

NOW Sarai, Abram’s wife, had not borne any children for him, but she had a female servant, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.

2 So Sarai said to Abram, “See, Yehovah has kept me from having children. Go have sex with my servant. It may be that I will have children by her.” Abram listened to the voice of Sarai.

3 It was after Abram had lived ten years in the land of Canaan that Sarai, Abram’s wife, gave Hagar, her Egyptian servant, to her husband as a wife.

4 So he had sexual relations with Hagar, and she conceived. When she saw that she had conceived, she looked with contempt on her mistress.

5 Then Sarai said to Abram, “This wrong on me is because of you. I gave my servant woman into your embrace, and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes. Let Yehovah judge between me and you.”

6 But Abram said to Sarai, “See here, your servant woman is in your power, do to her what you think best.” So Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her.

7 The angel of Yehovah found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, the spring that is on the way to Shur.

8 He said, “Hagar, Sarai’s servant, where did you come from and where are you going?” Then she said, “I am fleeing from my mistress Sarai.”

9 The angel of Yehovah said to her, “Return to your mistress, and submit yourself to her authority.”

10 Then the angel of Yehovah said to her, “I will greatly multiply your descendants, so that they will be too numerous to count.”

11 The angel of Yehovah also said to her, “Behold, you are pregnant, and will bear a son, and you will call his name Ishmael, because Yehovah has heard your affliction.

12 He will be a wild donkey of a man. He will be hostile against every man, and every man will be hostile to him, and he will live apart from all his brothers.

13 Then she gave this name to Yehovah who spoke to her, “You are the Almighty who sees me,” for she said, “Do I really continue to see, even after he has seen me?”

14 Therefore, the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.

15 Hagar gave birth to Abram’s son, and Abram named his son, whom Hagar bore, Ishmael.

16 Abram was eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to Abram.


Abraham and the Covenant of Circumcision

WHEN Abram was ninety-nine years old, Yehovah appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am El Shaddai. Walk before me, and be blameless.

2 Then I will confirm my covenant between me and you, and will multiply you exceedingly.

3 Abram bowed low with his face to the ground and the Almighty talked with him, saying,

4 “As for me, behold, my covenant is with you. You will be the father of a multitude of ethno-linguistic nations.

5 No longer will your name be Abram, but your name will be Abraham, for I appoint you to be the father of a multitude of ethno-linguistic nations.

6 I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make ethno-linguistic nations of you, and kings will descend from you.

7 I will establish my covenant between me and you and your descendants after you, throughout their generations for an everlasting covenant, to be the Almighty to you and to your descendants after you.

8 I will give to you, and to your descendants after you, the land where you have been living, all the land of Canaan, for an everlasting possession, and I will be their Almighty.

9 Then the Almighty said to Abraham, “As for you, you must keep my covenant, you and your descendants after you throughout their generations.

10 This is my covenant, which you must keep, between me and you and your descendants after you: Every male among you must be circumcised.

11 You must be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and this will be the sign of the covenant between me and you.

12 Every male among you that is eight days old must be circumcised, throughout your people’s generations. This includes him who is born into your household and him who is bought with money from any foreigner who is not one of your descendants.

13 He who is born into your household and he who is bought with your money must be circumcised. Thus my covenant will be in your flesh for an everlasting covenant.

14 Any uncircumcised male who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin will be cut off from his people. He has broken my covenant.

Isaac’s Birth Promised

15 The Almighty said to Abraham, “As for Sarai your wife, do not call her Sarai any more. Instead, her name will be Sarah.

16 I will bless her, and I will give you a son by her. I will bless her, and she will become the mother of ethno-linguistic nations. Kings of peoples will come from her.

17 Then Abraham bowed low with his face to the ground, and laughed, and said in his heart, “Can a child be born to a man who is a hundred years old? How can Sarah, who is ninety years old, bear a son?”

18 Abraham said to the Almighty, “Oh that Ishmael might live before you!”

19 The Almighty said, “No, but Sarah your wife will bear you a son, and you must name him Isaac. I will establish my covenant with him as an everlasting covenant with his descendants after him.

20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you. Behold, I hereby bless him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him abundantly. He will be the father of twelve leaders of tribes, and I will make him become a great ethno-linguistic nation.

21 But my covenant I will establish with Isaac, whom Sarah will bear to you at this time in the next year.

22 When he had finished talking with him, the Almighty went up from Abraham.

23 Then Abraham took Ishmael his son, and all those who were born into his household, and all those who were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s household, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin in that same day, as the Almighty had said to him.

24 Abraham was ninety-nine years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

25 Ishmael his son was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin.

26 On the very same day Abraham and Ishmael his son were both circumcised.

27 All the men of his household were circumcised with him, including those born into the household and those bought with money from a foreigner.


YEHOVAH appeared to Abraham by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat in the tent doorway in the heat of the day.

2 He looked up and behold, he saw three men standing across from him. When he saw them, he ran to meet them from the tent door and bowed low to the ground.

3 He said, “Lord, if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by and leave your servant.

4 Let a little water be brought, wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree.

5 Let me bring a little food, so that you may refresh yourselves. Afterwards you can go your way, since you have come to your servant.” They replied, “Do as you have said.”

6 Then Abraham quickly went into the tent to Sarah, and said, “Hurry, get three seahs of fine flour, knead it, and make bread.”

7 Then Abraham ran to the herd, and took a calf that was tender and good, and gave it to the servant, and he hurried to prepare it.

8 He took curds and milk, and the calf that had been prepared, and placed the food before them, and he stood by them under the tree while they ate.

9 They said to him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” He replied, “There, in the tent.”

10 He said, “I will certainly return to you in the springtime, and see, Sarah your wife will have a son.” Sarah was listening in the tent doorway, which was behind him.

11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old, very advanced in age, and Sarah had passed the age when women could bear children.

12 So Sarah laughed to herself, saying to herself, “After I am worn out and my master is old, will I now have this pleasure?”

13 Yehovah said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Will I really bear a child, when I am old’?

14 Is anything too hard for Yehovah? At the time appointed by me, in the spring, I will return to you. About this time next year Sarah will have a son.

15 Then Sarah denied it and said, “I did not laugh,” for she was afraid. He replied, “No, you did laugh.”

16 Then the men arose to leave and looked down toward Sodom. Abraham went with them to see them on their way.

17 But Yehovah said, “Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do,

18 since Abraham will indeed become a great and mighty nation, and all the ethno-linguistic nations of the earth will be blessed in him?

19 For I have chosen him so that he may instruct his children and his household after him to keep the way of Yehovah, to do righteousness and justice, so that Yehovah may bring upon Abraham what he has said to him.

20 Then Yehovah said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is so great, and because their sin is so serious,

21 I will now go down there and see the outcry against her that has come to me, whether they have really done it. If not, I will know.

Abraham Intercedes for Sodom

22 So the men turned from there, and went toward Sodom, but Abraham remained standing before Yehovah.

23 Then Abraham approached and said, “Will you sweep away the righteous with the wicked?

24 Perhaps there are fifty righteous within the city. Will you sweep it away and not spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous that are there?

25 Far be it from you to do such a thing, killing the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous should be treated the same as the wicked. Far be it from you! Will not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?

26 Yehovah said, “If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will spare the whole place for their sake.”

27 Abraham answered and said, “Look, I have undertaken to speak to my Lord, even though I am only dust and ashes!

28 What if there are five less than fifty righteous? Will you destroy the whole city for lack of five?” Then he said, “I will not destroy it, if I find there forty-five.”

29 He spoke to him yet again, and said, “What if there are forty found there?” He replied, “I will not do it for the forty’s sake.”

30 He said, “Please do not be angry, Lord, so I may speak. Perhaps thirty will be found there.” He replied, “I will not do it, if I find thirty there.”

31 He said, “Look, I have undertaken to speak to my Lord! Perhaps twenty will be found there.” He replied, “I will not destroy it for the twenty’s sake.”

32 He said, “Please do not be angry, Lord, and I will speak this one last time. Perhaps ten will be found there.” Then he said, “I will not destroy it for the ten’s sake.”

33 Yehovah went on his way as soon as he had finished talking with Abraham, and Abraham returned home.


Yehovah Rescues Lot

THE two angels came to Sodom in the evening, while Lot was sitting at the gate of Sodom. Lot saw them, arose to meet them, and bowed down with his face to the ground.

2 He said, “Please my masters, I urge you to turn aside into your servant’s house, stay for the night, and wash your feet. Then you can rise up early and go on your way.” They replied, “No, we will spend the night in the town square.”

3 But he urged them strongly, so they went with him, and entered into his house. He prepared a meal and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, surrounded the house, both young and old, all the men from every part of the city.

5 They called to Lot, and said to him, “Where are the men that came in to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may have sex with them.” (bestiality, homosexuality, lesbianism, LGBTQ)

6 So Lot went out the door to them and shut the door after himself.

7 He said, “I beg you, my brothers, do not act so wickedly.

8 Look, I have two daughters who have not slept with any man. Let me, I beg you, bring them out to you, and you do to them whatever is good in your eyes. Only do nothing to these men, because they have come under the shadow of my roof.

9 They said, “Stand back!” They also said, “This one came here to live as a foreigner, and now he has become our judge! Now we will deal worse with you than with them.” They pressed hard against the man, against Lot, and came near to break down the door.

10 But the men reached out their hands and brought Lot into the house with them and shut the door.

11 Then Lot’s visitors struck with blindness the men who were outside the door of the house, both young and old, so that they became exhausted when they were trying to find the door.

12 Then the men said to Lot, “Do you have anyone else here? Any sons-in-law, your sons and your daughters, and whoever you have in the city, get them out of here.

13 For we are about to destroy this place, because the accusations against it before Yehovah have become so loud that he has sent us to destroy it.

14 Lot went out and spoke to his sons-in-law, the men who had promised to marry his daughters, and said, “Quick, get out of this place, for Yehovah is about to destroy the city.” But to his sons-in-law he seemed to be joking.

15 When the morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, “Get going, take your wife and your two daughters that are here, so you are not swept away in the punishment of the city.”

16 But he lingered. So the men grabbed his hand, and the hand of his wife, and the hands of his two daughters, because Yehovah was merciful to him. They brought them out, and set them outside the city.

17 When they had brought them out, one of the men said, “Run for your lives! Do not look back, or stay anywhere on the plain. Escape to the mountains so you are not swept away.”

18 Lot said to them, “No, please, my masters!

19 Your servant has found favor in your sight, and you have shown me great kindness in saving my life, but I cannot escape to the mountains, because the disaster will overtake me, and I will die.

20 Look, that city over there is near enough to flee to, and it is a little one. Please, let me escape there (is it not a little one?), and my life will be saved.

21 He said to him, “Alright, I am granting this request also, that I will not destroy the city which you have mentioned.

22 Hurry! Escape there, for I cannot do anything until you arrive there.” Therefore, the city was called Zoar.

Yehovah Destroys Sodom

23 The sun had risen upon the earth when Lot reached Zoar.

24 Then Yehovah rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from Yehovah out of the sky.

25 He destroyed those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and the plants that grew on the ground.

26 But Lot’s wife, who was behind him, looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.

27 Abraham got up early in the morning and went to the place where he had stood before Yehovah.

28 He looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all the land of the plain. He looked and behold, smoke was rising from the land like the smoke of a furnace.

29 So when the Almighty destroyed the cities of the plain, the Almighty called Abraham to mind. He sent Lot out of the midst of the destruction when he destroyed the cities in which Lot had lived.

Lot and His Daughters

30 But Lot went up from Zoar to live in the mountains with his two daughters, because he was afraid to live in Zoar. So he lived in a cave, he and his two daughters.

31 The firstborn said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is no man anywhere to have sex with us according to the way of all the world.

32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will have sex with him, so that we may extend our father’s line.”

33 So they made their father drink wine that night. Then the firstborn went in and had sex with her father; he did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose.

34 The next day the firstborn said to the younger, “Listen, last night I had sex with my father. Let us make him drink wine tonight also, and you should go in and have sex with him, so that we may extend our father’s line.”

35 So they made their father drink wine that night also, and the younger went and had sex with him. He did not know when she lay down, nor when she arose.

36 So both the daughters of Lot were pregnant by their father.

37 The firstborn gave birth to a son, and named him Moab. He became the ancestor of the Moabites of today.

38 As for the younger daughter, she also gave birth to a son, and named him Ben Ammi. He became the ancestor of the people of Ammon of today.


Abraham and Abimelech

ABRAHAM journeyed from there toward the land of the Negev, and lived between Kadesh and Shur. He was a foreigner living in Gerar.

2 Abraham said concerning Sarah his wife, “She is my sister.” So Abimelech king of Gerar sent his men and they took Sarah.

3 But the Almighty came to Abimelech in a dream in the night, and said to him, “Behold, you are a dead man because of the woman whom you have taken, for she is a man’s wife.”

4 Now Abimelech had not come near her and he said, “Lord, would you kill even a righteous ethno-linguistic nation?

5 Did he not himself say to me, ‘She is my sister?’ Even she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ I have done this in the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands.”

6 Then the Almighty said to him in the dream, “Yes, I also know that in the integrity of your heart you did this, and I also kept you from sinning against me. Therefore, I did not allow you to touch her.

7 Therefore, return the man’s wife, for he is a prophet. He will pray for you, and you will live. But if you do not restore her, know that you and all who are yours will surely die.”

8 Abimelech rose early in the morning and called all of his servants to himself. He told all these things to them, and the men were very afraid.

9 Then Abimelech called for Abraham and said to him, “What have you done to us? How have I sinned against you, that you have brought on me and on my kingdom a great sin? You have done to me that which ought not to be done.”

10 Abimelech said to Abraham, “What prompted you to do this thing?”

11 Abraham said, “Because I thought, ‘Surely there is no fear of the Almighty in this place, and they will kill me because of my wife.’

12 Besides, she is indeed my sister, the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother; and she became my wife.

13 When the Almighty caused me to leave my father’s house and travel from place to place, I said to her, ‘You must show me this faithfulness as my wife: At every place where we go, say about me, “He is my brother.”’”

14 Then Abimelech took sheep and oxen, and male and female slaves, and gave them to Abraham. Then he returned Sarah, Abraham’s wife, to him.

15 Abimelech said, “Look, my land is before you. Settle wherever it pleases you.”

16 To Sarah he said, “Look, I have given your brother a thousand pieces of silver. It is to cover any offense against you in the eyes of all that are with you, and before everyone, you are completely made right.”

17 Then Abraham prayed to the Almighty, and the Almighty healed Abimelech, his wife, and his female slaves so that they were able to have children.

18 For Yehovah had caused all the women of the household of Abimelech to be completely infertile, because of Sarah, Abraham’s wife.


The Birth of Isaac

YEHOVAH paid attention to Sarah as he had said he would, and Yehovah did for Sarah just as he had promised.

2 Sarah conceived and bore a son to Abraham in his old age, at the set time of which the Almighty had spoken to him.

3 Abraham named his son, the one who had been born to him, whom Sarah bore to him, Isaac.

4 Abraham circumcised his son Isaac when he was eight days old, just as the Almighty had commanded him.

5 Abraham was one hundred years old when his son Isaac was born to him.

6 Sarah said, “The Almighty has made me laugh; every one who hears will laugh with me.”

7 She also said, “Who would have said to Abraham that Sarah would nurse children, and yet I have borne him a son in his old age!”

Yehovah Protects Hagar and Ishmael

8 The child grew and was weaned, and Abraham made a great feast on the day that Isaac was weaned.

9 Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, whom she had borne to Abraham, mocking.

10 So she said to Abraham, “Drive out this slave woman and her son: For the son of this slave woman will not be heir with my son, with Isaac.”

11 This thing was very grievous to Abraham because of his son.

12 But the Almighty said to Abraham, “Do not be grieved because of the lad, and because of your servant woman. Listen to her words in all she says to you about this matter, because it is through Isaac that your descendants will be named.

13 I will also make the son of the servant woman into an ethno-linguistic nation, because he is your descendant.

14 Abraham rose up early in the morning, took bread and a skin of water, and gave it to Hagar, putting it on her shoulder. He gave her the boy and sent her away. She departed and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.

15 When the water in the waterskin was gone, she abandoned the child under one of the bushes.

16 Then she went, and sat down a short distance from him, about the distance of a bowshot away, for she said, “Let me not look upon the death of the child.” As she sat there across from him, she lifted up her voice and wept.

17 The Almighty heard the voice of the lad, and the angel of the Almighty called to Hagar out of heaven, and said to her, “What troubles you, Hagar? Do not be afraid, for the Almighty has heard the voice of the lad where he is.

18 Get up, raise up the lad, and encourage him; for I will make him into a great ethno-linguistic nation.

19 Then the Almighty opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water. She went and filled the skin with water, and gave the lad a drink.

20 The Almighty was with the lad, and he grew. He lived in the wilderness and became an archer.

21 He lived in the wilderness of Paran, and his mother got a wife for him from the land of Egypt.

A Treaty with Abimelech

22 It came about at that time that Abimelech and Phicol the captain of his army spoke to Abraham, saying, “The Almighty is with you in all that you do.

23 Now therefore swear to me here by the Almighty that you will not deal falsely with me, nor with my children, nor with my descendants. Show to me and to the land in which you have been staying the same covenant faithfulness that I have shown to you.

24 Abraham said, “I swear.”

25 Abraham also complained to Abimelech concerning a well of water that Abimelech’s servants had seized from him.

26 Abimelech said, “I do not know who has done this thing. You did not tell me before now; I have not heard of it until today.”

27 So Abraham took sheep and oxen and gave them to Abimelech, and the two men made a covenant.

28 Then Abraham set seven female lambs of the flock by themselves.

29 Abimelech said to Abraham, “What is the meaning of these seven female lambs that you have set by themselves?”

30 He replied, “These seven female lambs you will receive from my hand, so that it may be a witness for me, that I dug this well.”

31 So he called that place Beersheba, because there they both swore an oath.

32 They made a covenant at Beersheba, and then Abimelech and Phicol, the captain of his army, returned to the land of the Philistines.

33 Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba. There he worshiped Yehovah, the eternal Divine One.

34 Abraham remained as a foreigner in the land of the Philistines many days.


The Sacrifice of Isaac

IT came about after these things that the Almighty tested Abraham. He said to him, “Abraham!” Abraham said, “Here I am.”

2 Then the Almighty said, “Take your son, your only son, whom you love, Isaac, and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains there, which I will tell you about.”

3 So Abraham rose early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, along with Isaac his son. He cut the wood for the burnt offering, then set out on his journey to the place that the Almighty had told him about.

4 On the third day Abraham looked up and saw the place afar off.

5 Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the donkey, and I and the lad will go over there. We will worship and come again to you.”

6 Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and put it on Isaac his son. He took in his own hand the fire and the knife; and they went both of them together.

7 Isaac spoke to Abraham his father and said, “My father,” and he said, “Here I am, my son.” He said, “See, here is the fire and the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?”

8 Abraham said, “The Almighty himself will provide the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.” So they went on, both of them together.

9 When they came to the place that the Almighty had told him about, Abraham built an altar there and laid the wood on it. Then he bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, on top of the wood.

10 Abraham reached out with his hand and took up the knife to kill his son.

11 Then the angel of Yehovah called to him from heaven and said, “Abraham, Abraham!” and he said, “Here I am.”

12 He said, “Do not lay your hand upon the lad, nor do anything to harm him, for now I know that you fear the Almighty, seeing that you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.”

13 Abraham looked up and behold, behind him was a ram caught in the bushes by his horns. Abraham went and took the ram and offered him up as a burnt offering instead of his son.

14 So Abraham called that place, “Yehovah will provide,” and it is said to this day, “On the mountain of Yehovah it will be provided.”

15 The angel of Yehovah called to Abraham a second time from heaven

16 and said, this is an oracle of Yehovah, “By myself I have sworn that because you have done this thing, and have not withheld your son, your only son,

17 I will surely bless you and I will greatly multiply your descendants as the stars of the heavens, and as the sand which is upon the seashore; and your descendants will possess the gate of their enemies.

18 Through your offspring all the ethno-linguistic nations of the earth will be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.

19 So Abraham returned to his young men, and they departed and went together to Beersheba, and he lived at Beersheba.

20 It came about after these things that Abraham was told, “Milcah has borne children, as well, to your brother Nahor.”

21 They were Uz his firstborn, Buz his brother, Kemuel the father of Aram,

22 Chesed, Hazo, Pildash, Jidlaph, and Bethuel.

23 Bethuel became the father of Rebekah. These were the eight children that Milcah bore to Nahor, Abraham’s brother.

24 His concubine, whose name was Reumah, also bore Tebah, Gaham, Tahash, and Maacah.


Sarah’s Death and Burial

SARAH lived a hundred and twenty-seven years. These were the years of the life of Sarah.

2 Sarah died in Kiriath Arba, that is, Hebron, in the land of Canaan. Abraham mourned and wept for Sarah.

3 Then Abraham rose up and went from his dead wife, and spoke to the sons of Heth, saying,

4 “I am a foreigner among you. Please grant me a property for a burial place among you, so that I may bury my dead.”

5 The sons of Heth answered Abraham, saying,

6 “Listen to us, my master. You are a prince of the Almighty among us. Bury your dead in the choicest of our tombs. None of us will refuse you his tomb, so that you may bury your dead.”

7 Abraham arose and bowed down to the people of the land, to the sons of Heth.

8 He spoke to them, saying, “If you agree that I should bury my dead, then hear me and plead with Ephron son of Zohar, for me.

9 Ask him to sell me the cave of Machpelah, which he owns, which is at the end of his field. For the full price let him sell it to me publicly as a property for a burial place.

10 Now Ephron was sitting among the sons of Heth, and Ephron the Hethite answered Abraham in the hearing of the sons of Heth, of all those who had come into the gate of his city, saying,

11 “No, my master, hear me. I give you the field, and the cave that is in it. I give it to you in the presence of the sons of my people. I give it to you to bury your dead.”

12 Then Abraham bowed himself down before the people of the land.

13 He spoke to Ephron in the hearing of the people of the land, saying, “But if you are willing, please hear me. I will pay for the field. Take the money from me, and I will bury my dead there.”

14 Ephron answered Abraham, saying,

15 “Please, my master, listen to me. A piece of land worth four hundred shekels of silver, what is that between me and you? Bury your dead.”

16 Abraham listened to Ephron and Abraham weighed out to Ephron the amount of silver that he had spoken in the hearing of the sons of Heth, four hundred shekels of silver, according to the standard measurement of the merchants.

17 So the field of Ephron, which was in Machpelah, which was next to Mamre, that is, the field, the cave that was in it, and all the trees that were in the field and all around its border, passed

18 to Abraham by purchase in the presence of the sons of Heth, before all those who had come into the gate of his city.

19 After this, Abraham buried Sarah his wife in the cave of the field of Machpelah, which is next to Mamre, that is, Hebron, in the land of Canaan.

20 So the field and the cave in it passed to Abraham as a property for a burial place from the sons of Heth.


Isaac and Rebekah

NOW Abraham was very old and Yehovah had blessed Abraham in all things.

2 Abraham said to his servant, the one who was the oldest of his household and who was in charge of all that he had, “Put your hand under my thigh

3 and I will make you swear by Yehovah, the Almighty of heaven and the Almighty of the earth, that you will not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I make my home.

4 But you will go to my country, and to my relatives, and get a wife for my son Isaac.

5 The servant said to him, “What if the woman will not be willing to follow me to this land? Must I take your son back to the land from which you came?”

6 Abraham said to him, “Make sure that you do not take my son back there!

7 Yehovah, the Almighty of heaven, who took me from my father’s house and from the land of my relatives, and who promised me with a solemn oath saying, ‘To your offspring I will give this land,’ he will send his angel before you, and you will get a wife for my son from there.

8 But if the woman is not willing to follow you, then you will be free from this oath of mine. Only you are not to take my son back there.

9 So the servant put his hand under the thigh of Abraham his master, and swore to him concerning this matter.

10 The servant took ten of his master’s camels and departed. He also took with him all kinds of gifts from his master. He departed and went to the region of Aram Naharaim, to the city of Nahor.

11 He made the camels kneel down outside the city by the well of water. It was evening, the time that women go out to draw water.

12 Then he said, “Yehovah, the Almighty of my master Abraham, grant me success today and show covenant faithfulness to my master Abraham.

13 Look, here I am standing by the spring of water, and the daughters of the men of the city are coming out to draw water.

14 Let it happen like this. When I say to a young woman, ‘Please lower your pitcher so that I may drink,’ and she says to me, ‘Drink, and I will water your camels too,’ then let her be the one that you have appointed for your servant Isaac. By this I will know that you have shown covenant faithfulness to my master.”

15 It came about that even before he had finished speaking, behold, Rebekah came out with her water pitcher on her shoulder. Rebekah was born to Bethuel son of Milcah, the wife of Nahor, Abraham’s brother.

16 The young woman was very beautiful and a virgin. No man had had sex with her. She went down to the spring and filled her pitcher, and came up.

17 Then the servant ran to meet her and said, “Please give me a little drink of water from your pitcher.”

18 She said, “Drink, my master,” and she quickly let down her pitcher on her hand, and gave him a drink.

19 When she had finished giving him a drink, she said, “I will draw water for your camels also, until they have finished drinking.”

20 So she hurried and emptied her pitcher into the trough, then ran again to the well to draw water, and drew water for all his camels.

21 The man watched her in silence to see whether Yehovah had prospered his journey or not.

22 As the camels finished drinking, the man brought out a gold nose ring weighing half a shekel, and two gold bracelets for her arms weighing ten shekels,

23 and asked, “Whose daughter are you? Tell me please, is there room in your father’s house for us to spend the night?”

24 She said to him, “I am the daughter of Bethuel son of Milcah, whom she bore to Nahor.”

25 She also said to him, “We have plenty of both straw and feed, and also room for you to spend the night.”

26 Then the man bowed down and worshiped Yehovah.

27 He said, “Blessed be Yehovah, the Almighty of my master Abraham, who has not forsaken his covenant faithfulness and his trustworthiness toward my master. As for me, Yehovah has led me directly to the house of my master’s relatives.”

28 Then the young woman ran and told her mother’s household about all of these things.

29 Now Rebekah had a brother, and his name was Laban. Laban ran to the man who was out at the road by the spring.

30 When he had seen the nose ring and the bracelets on his sister’s arms, and when he had heard the words of Rebekah his sister, “This is what the man said to me,” he went to the man, and behold, he was standing by the camels at the spring.

31 Then Laban said, “Come, you blessed of Yehovah. Why are you standing outside? I have prepared the house, and a place for the camels.”

32 So the man came to the house and he unloaded the camels. The camels were given straw and feed, and water was provided to wash his feet and the feet of the men who were with him.

33 They set food before him to eat, but he said, “I will not eat until I have said what I have to say.” So Laban said, “Speak on.”

34 He said, “I am Abraham’s servant.

35 Yehovah has blessed my master very much and he has become great. He has given him flocks and herds, silver and gold, male servants and female servants, and camels and donkeys.

36 Sarah, my master’s wife, bore a son to my master when she was old, and he has given everything that he owns to him.

37 My master made me swear, saying, ’You must not get a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, in whose land I make my home.

38 Instead, you must go to my father’s family, and to my relatives, and get a wife for my son.’

39 I said to my master, ‘Perhaps the woman will not follow me.’

40 But he said to me, ’Yehovah, before whom I walk, will send his angel with you and he will prosper your way, so that you will get a wife for my son from among my relatives and from my father’s family line.

41 But you will be free from my oath if you come to my relatives and they will not give her to you. Then you will be free from my oath.

42 So I arrived today at the spring, and said, ’O Yehovah, the Almighty of my master Abraham, please, if you do indeed intend to make my journey successful,

43 here I am, standing by the spring of water, let the young woman who comes out to draw water, the woman to whom I say, “Please give me a little water from your pitcher to drink,”

44 the woman who says to me, “Drink, and I will also draw water for your camels”, let her be the woman whom you, Yehovah, have chosen for my master’s son.’

45 Even before I had finished speaking in my heart, behold, Rebekah came out with her pitcher on her shoulder and she went down to the spring and drew water. So I said to her, ‘Please give me a drink.’

46 She quickly lowered her pitcher from her shoulder and said, ‘Drink, and I will give your camels water also.’ So I drank, and she watered the camels also.

47 I asked her and said, ‘Whose daughter are you?’ She said, ‘The daughter of Bethuel, Nahor’s son, whom Milcah bore to him.’ Then I put the ring in her nose and the bracelets on her arms.

48 Then I bowed down and worshiped Yehovah, and blessed Yehovah, the Almighty of my master Abraham, who had led me by the right way to find the daughter of my master’s relative for his son.

49 Now therefore, if you are prepared to treat my master with family faithfulness and trustworthiness, tell me. But if not, tell me, so that I may turn to the right hand, or to the left.

50 Then Laban and Bethuel answered and said, “The thing has come from Yehovah; we cannot speak to you either bad or good.

51 Look, Rebekah is before you. Take her and go, so she may be the wife of your master’s son, as Yehovah has spoken.”

52 When Abraham’s servant heard their words, he bowed himself down to the ground to Yehovah.

53 The servant brought out articles of silver and articles of gold, and clothing, and gave them to Rebekah. He also gave precious gifts to her brother and to her mother.

54 Then he and the men who were with him ate and drank. They stayed there overnight, and when they arose in the morning, he said, “Send me away to my master.”

55 Her brother and her mother said, “Let the young woman stay with us for a few more days, at least ten. After that she may go.”

56 But he said to them, “Do not hinder me, since Yehovah has prospered my way. Send me on my way so that I may go to my master.”

57 They said, “We will call the young woman and ask her.”

58 So they called Rebekah and asked her, “Will you go with this man?” She replied, “I will go.”

59 So they sent their sister Rebekah, along with her female servant, on her journey with Abraham’s servant and his men.

60 They blessed Rebekah, and said to her, “Our sister, may you be the mother of thousands of ten thousands, and may your descendants possess the gate of those who hate them.”

61 Then Rebekah arose, and she and her servant girls mounted the camels, and followed the man. Thus the servant took Rebekah, and went his way.

62 Now Isaac was living in the Negev, and had just returned from Beerlahairoi.

63 Isaac went out to meditate in the field in the evening. When he looked up and saw, behold, there were camels coming!

64 Rebekah looked, and when she saw Isaac, she jumped down from the camel.

65 She said to the servant, “Who is that man who is walking in the field to meet us?” The servant said, “It is my master.” So she took her veil, and covered herself.

66 The servant recounted to Isaac all the things that he had done.

67 Then Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah’s tent and took Rebekah, and she became his wife, and he loved her. So Isaac was comforted after his mother’s death.


Abraham’s Death and His Descendants

ABRAHAM took another wife; her name was Keturah.

2 She bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, and Shuah.

3 Jokshan became the father of Sheba and Dedan. The descendants of Dedan were the Assyrian people, the Letush people, and the Leum people.

4 Midian’s sons were Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abida, and Eldaah. All these were Keturah’s descendants.

5 Abraham gave all that he owned to Isaac.

6 However, while he was still living, he gave gifts to the sons of his concubines and sent them to the land of the east, away from Isaac, his son.

7 These were the days of the years of Abraham’s life which he lived, 175 years.

8 Abraham breathed his last and died at a good old age, an old man with a full life, and he was gathered to his people.

9 Isaac and Ishmael, his sons, buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hethite, which is near Mamre.

10 This field Abraham had bought from the sons of Heth. Abraham was buried there with Sarah his wife.

11 After the death of Abraham, the Almighty blessed Isaac his son, and Isaac lived near Beerlahairoi.

12 Now these were the descendants of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s servant, bore to Abraham.

13 These were the names of Ishmael’s sons, according to their birth order: Nebaioth, the firstborn of Ishmael, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam,

14 Mishma, Dumah, Massa,

15 Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah.

16 These were Ishmael’s sons, and these were their names, by their villages, and by their encampments; twelve princes according to their tribes.

17 These were the years of the life of Ishmael, 137 years: He breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his people.

18 They lived from Havilah to Shur, which is near Egypt, as one goes toward Assyria. They lived in hostility with each other.

The Birth of Esau and Jacob

19 These were the events concerning Isaac, Abraham’s son: Abraham became the father of Isaac.

20 Isaac was forty years old when he took as his wife Rebekah, the daughter of Bethuel the Aramean of Paddan Aram, the sister of Laban the Aramean.

21 Isaac prayed to Yehovah for his wife because she was childless, and Yehovah answered his prayer, and Rebekah his wife conceived.

22 The children struggled together within her, and she said, “Why is this happening to me?” She went to ask Yehovah about this.

23 Yehovah said to her, “Two nations are in your womb, and two peoples will be separated from within you. One people will be stronger than the other, and the older will serve the younger.”

24 When it was time for her to give birth, behold, there were twins in her womb.

25 The first child came out red all over like a hairy garment. They called his name Esau.

26 After that, his brother came out. His hand was grasping Esau’s heel. He was called Jacob. Isaac was sixty years old when his wife bore them.

27 The boys grew up, and Esau became a skillful hunter, a man of the field; but Jacob was a quiet man, who spent his time in the tents.

28 Now Isaac loved Esau because he ate the animals that he had hunted, but Rebekah loved Jacob.

Esau Sells His Birthright

29 Jacob cooked some stew. Esau came in from the field, and he was weak from hunger.

30 Esau said to Jacob, “Feed me with that red stew. Please, I am exhausted!” That is why his name was called Edom.

31 Jacob said, “First sell me your birthright.”

32 Esau said, “Look, I am about to die. What good is the birthright to me?”

33 Jacob said, “First swear to me,” so Esau swore an oath and in that way he sold his birthright to Jacob.

34 Jacob gave Esau bread and stew of lentils. He ate and drank, then got up and went on his way. In this manner Esau despised his birthright.


Yehovah’s Promise to Isaac

NOW a famine happened in the land, besides the first famine that had been in the days of Abraham. Isaac went to Abimelech, king of the Philistines at Gerar.

2 Now Yehovah appeared to him and said, “Do not go down to Egypt; live in the land that I tell you to live in.

3 Stay in this very land, and I will be with you and will bless you; for to you and to your descendants, I will give all these lands, and I will fulfill the oath that I swore to Abraham your father.

4 I will multiply your descendants like the stars of heaven, and will give to your descendants all these lands. Through your descendants all the ethno-linguistic nations of the earth will be blessed.

5 I will do this because Abraham obeyed my voice and kept my instructions, my commandments, my statutes, and my Torah.

Isaac and Abimelech

6 So Isaac settled in Gerar.

7 When the men of the place asked him about his wife, he said, “She is my sister.” He feared to say, “She is my wife,” because he thought, “The men of this place will kill me to get Rebekah, because she is so beautiful.”

8 After Isaac had been there a long time, Abimelech king of the Philistines happened to look out of a window. He saw, behold, Isaac was caressing Rebekah, his wife.

9 Abimelech called Isaac to him and said, “Look, certainly she is your wife. Why did you say, ‘She is my sister’?” Isaac said to him, “Because I thought someone might kill me to get her.”

10 Abimelech said, “What is this you have done to us? One of the people might easily have had sex with your wife, and you would have brought guilt upon us.”

11 So Abimelech warned all the people and said, “Whoever touches this man or his wife will surely be put to death.”

12 Isaac planted crops in that land and reaped in the same year a hundredfold, because Yehovah blessed him.

13 The man became rich, and grew more and more until he became very great.

14 He had many sheep and cattle, and a large household. The Philistines envied him.

15 Now all the wells that his father’s servants had dug in the days of Abraham his father, the Philistines stopped them up by filling them with earth.

16 Abimelech said to Isaac, “Go away from us, for you are much mightier than we.”

17 So Isaac departed from there and settled in the Valley of Gerar, and lived there.

18 Once again Isaac dug out the wells of water, which they had dug in the days of Abraham his father. The Philistines had stopped them up after Abraham’s death. Isaac called the wells by the same names that his father had called them.

19 When Isaac’s servants dug in the valley, they found there a well of flowing water.

20 The herdsmen of Gerar quarreled with Isaac’s herdsmen, and said, “This water is ours.” So Isaac called that well “Esek,” because they had quarreled with him.

21 Then they dug another well, and they quarreled over that, too, so he gave it the name of “Sitnah.”

22 He left there and dug yet another well, but they did not quarrel over that one. So he called it Rehoboth, and he said, “Now Yehovah has made room for us, and we will prosper in the land.”

23 Then Isaac went up from there to Beersheba.

24 Yehovah appeared to him that same night and said, “I am the Almighty of Abraham your father. Do not fear, for I am with you and will bless you and multiply your descendants, for my servant Abraham’s sake.”

25 Isaac built an altar there and called on the name of Yehovah. There he pitched his tent, and his servants dug a well.

26 Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, with Ahuzzath, his friend, and Phicol, the captain of his army.

27 Isaac said to them, “Why are you coming to me, since you hate me and have sent me away from you?”

28 Then they said, “We have clearly seen that Yehovah has been with you. So we decided that there should be an oath between us, yes, between us and you. So let us make a covenant with you,

29 that you will do us no harm, just as we have not harmed you, and as we have treated you well and have sent you away in peace. Indeed, you are blessed by Yehovah.

30 So Isaac made a feast for them, and they ate and drank.

31 They rose early in the morning and swore an oath with each other. Then Isaac sent them away, and they left him in peace.

32 That same day Isaac’s servants came and told him about the well that they had dug. They said, “We have found water.”

33 He called the well Shibah, so the name of that city is Beersheba to this day.

34 When Esau was forty years old, he took a wife, Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hethite, and also Basemath the daughter of Elon the Hethite.

35 They brought sorrow to Isaac and Rebekah.


Isaac Blesses Jacob

WHEN Isaac was old and his eyes were dim so that he could not see, he called Esau, his older son, and said to him, “My son.” He said to him, “Here I am.”

2 He said, “See here, I am old. I do not know the day of my death.

3 Therefore, take your weapons, your quiver and your bow, and go out to the field and hunt game for me.

4 Make delicious food for me, the sort that I love, and bring it to me so I can eat it and bless you before I die.

5 Now Rebekah heard it when Isaac spoke to Esau his son. Esau went to the field to hunt for game and bring it back.

6 Rebekah spoke to Jacob her son and said, “See here, I heard your father speak to Esau your brother. He said,

7 ‘Bring me game and make me delicious food, that I may eat it and bless you in the presence of Yehovah before my death.’

8 Now therefore, my son, obey my voice as I command you.

9 Go to the flock, and bring me two good young goats; and I will make delicious food from them for your father, just like he loves.

10 You will take it to your father, so that he may eat it, so that he may bless you before his death.

11 Jacob said to Rebekah his mother, “See, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man.

12 Perhaps my father will touch me, and I will seem to him as a deceiver. I will bring a curse upon me and not a blessing.

13 His mother said to him, “My son, let any curse fall on me. Just obey my voice, and go, bring them to me.”

14 So Jacob went and got the young goats and brought them to his mother, and his mother made delicious food, just like his father loved.

15 Rebekah took the best clothes of Esau, her older son, which were with her in the house, and put them on Jacob, her younger son.

16 She put the skins of the young goats on his hands and on the smooth part of his neck.

17 She put the delicious food and the bread that she had prepared into the hand of her son Jacob.

18 Jacob went to his father and said, “My father.” He said, “Here I am; who are you, my son?”

19 Jacob said to his father, “I am Esau your firstborn; I have done as you said to me. Now sit up and eat some of my game, that you may bless me.”

20 Isaac said to his son, “How is it that you have found it so quickly, my son?” He said, “Because Yehovah your Almighty brought it to me.”

21 Isaac said to Jacob, “Come near me, so I may touch you, my son, and learn whether you are my true son Esau or not.”

22 Jacob went over to Isaac his father; and Isaac touched him and said, “The voice is Jacob’s voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau.”

23 Isaac did not recognize him, because his hands were hairy, like his brother Esau’s hands, so Isaac blessed him.

24 He said, “Are you really my son Esau?” He replied, “I am.”

25 Isaac said, “Bring the food to me, and I will eat of your game, so that I may bless you.” Jacob brought the food to him. Isaac ate, and Jacob brought him wine, and he drank.

26 Then his father Isaac said to him, “Come near now and kiss me, my son.”

27 Jacob came near and kissed him, and he smelled the smell of his clothes and blessed him. He said, “See, the smell of my son is like the smell of a field that Yehovah has blessed.

28 May the Almighty give you a portion of the dew of heaven, a portion of the fatness of the earth, and plenty of grain and new wine.

29 May peoples serve you and ethno-linguistic nations bow down to you. Be master over your brothers, and may your mother’s sons bow down to you. May every one who curses you be cursed; may every one who blesses you be blessed.”

30 As soon as Isaac had finished blessing Jacob, and Jacob had scarcely gone out from the presence of Isaac his father, Esau his brother came in from his hunting.

31 He also made delicious food and brought it to his father. He said to his father, “Father, get up and eat some of your son’s game, so that you may bless me.”

32 Isaac his father said to him, “Who are you?” He said, “I am your son, your firstborn, Esau.”

33 Isaac trembled very much and said, “Who was it that hunted this game and brought it to me? I ate it all before you came, and I have blessed him. Indeed, he will be blessed.”

34 When Esau heard the words of his father, he cried with a very great and bitter cry, and said to his father, “Bless me, me also, my father.”

35 Isaac said, “Your brother came here deceitfully and has taken away your blessing.”

36 Esau said, “Is he not rightly named Jacob? For he has cheated me these two times. He took away my birthright, and, see, now he has taken away my blessing.” Then he said, “Have you not reserved a blessing for me?”

37 Isaac answered and said to Esau, “Look, I have made him your master, and I have given to him all his brothers as servants, and I have given him grain and new wine. What more can I do for you, my son?”

38 Esau said to his father, “Have you not even one blessing for me, my father? Bless me, even me too, my father.” Esau wept loudly.

39 Isaac his father answered and said to him, “Look, the place where you live will be far from the richness of the earth, away from the dew of the sky above.

40 By your sword you will live, and you will serve your brother. But when you rebel, you will shake his yoke from off your neck.

41 Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing that his father had given him. Esau said in his heart, “The days of mourning for my father are near; after that I will kill my brother Jacob.”

42 The words of Esau her older son were told to Rebekah. So she sent and called Jacob her younger son and said to him, “See, your brother Esau is consoling himself about you by planning to murder you.

43 Now therefore, my son, obey me and flee to Laban, my brother, in Haran.

44 Stay with him for a while, until your brother’s fury subsides,

45 until your brother’s anger turns away from you, and he forgets what you have done to him. Then I will send and bring you back from there. Why should I lose you both in one day?

46 Rebekah said to Isaac, “I am weary of life because of the daughters of Heth. If Jacob takes one of the daughters of Heth as a wife, like these women, some of the daughters of the land, what good will my life be to me?”


Jacob Sent to Laban

ISAAC called Jacob, blessed him, and commanded him, “You must not take a wife from the Canaanite women.

2 Arise, go to Paddan Aram, to the house of Bethuel your mother’s father, and take a wife from there, one of the daughters of Laban, your mother’s brother.

3 May El Shaddai bless you, make you fruitful and multiply you, so that you may become a multitude of peoples.

4 May he give you the blessing of Abraham, to you, and to your descendants after you, that you may inherit the land where you have been living, which the Almighty gave to Abraham.

5 So Isaac sent Jacob away. Jacob went to Paddan Aram, to Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob’s and Esau’s mother.

Esau Marries an Ishmaelite

6 Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan Aram, to take a wife from there. He also saw that Isaac had blessed him and given him a command, saying, “You must not take a wife from the women of Canaan.”

7 Esau also saw that Jacob had obeyed his father and his mother, and had gone to Paddan Aram.

8 Esau saw that the women of Canaan did not please Isaac his father.

9 So he went to Ishmael, and took, besides the wives that he had, Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, the sister of Nebaioth, to be his wife.

Jacob’s Dream

10 Jacob left Beersheba and went toward Haran.

11 He came to a certain place and stayed there all night, because the sun had set. He took one of the stones in that place, put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep.

12 He dreamed and saw a stairway set up on the earth. Its top reached to heaven and the angels of the Almighty were ascending and descending on it.

13 Behold, Yehovah stood above it and said, “I am Yehovah, the Almighty of Abraham your father, and the Almighty of Isaac. The land on which you are lying, I will give to you and to your descendants.

14 Your descendants will be like the dust of the earth, and you will spread far out to the west, to the east, to the north, and to the south. Through you and through your descendants will all the ethno-linguistic families of the earth be blessed.

15 Behold, I am with you, and I will keep you wherever you go. I will bring you into this land again; for I will not leave you. I will do all that I have promised to you.

16 Jacob awoke out of his sleep, and he said, “Surely Yehovah is in this place, and I did not know it.”

17 He was afraid and said, “How terrifying is this place! This is none other than the temple of the Almighty. This is the gate of heaven.”

18 Jacob arose early in the morning and took the stone that he had put under his head. He set it up as a pillar and poured oil upon the top of it.

19 He called the name of that place Bethel, but the name of the city originally was Luz.

20 Jacob vowed a vow, saying, “If the Almighty will be with me and will protect me on this road on which I am walking, and will give me bread to eat, and clothes to wear,

21 so that I return safely to my father’s house, then Yehovah will be my Divine One.

22 Then this stone that I have set up as a pillar will be a sacred stone. From everything that you give me, I will surely give a tenth back to you.


Jacob Marries Leah and Rachel

THEN Jacob went on his journey and came to the land of the people of the east.

2 As he looked, he saw a well in the field, and behold, three flocks of sheep were lying there by it. For out of that well they would water the flocks, and the stone over the well’s mouth was large.

3 When all the flocks had gathered there, the shepherds would roll the stone from the well’s mouth and water the sheep, and then put the stone again over the well’s mouth, back in its place.

4 Jacob said to them, “My brothers, where are you from?” They replied, “We are from Haran.”

5 He said to them, “Do you know Laban son of Nahor?” They said, “We know him.”

6 He said to them, “Is he well?” They said, “He is well, and, look there, Rachel his daughter is coming with the sheep.”

7 Jacob said, “See, it is the middle of the day. It is not the time for the flocks to be gathered together. You should water the sheep and then go and let them graze.”

8 They said, “We cannot water them until all the flocks are gathered together. The men will then roll the stone from the well’s mouth, and we will water the sheep.”

9 While Jacob was still speaking with them, Rachel came with her father’s sheep, for she was tending them.

10 When Jacob saw Rachel, the daughter of Laban, his mother’s brother, and the sheep of Laban, his mother’s brother, Jacob came over, rolled the stone from the well’s mouth, and watered the flock of Laban, his mother’s brother.

11 Jacob kissed Rachel and wept loudly.

12 Jacob told Rachel that he was her father’s relative, and that he was Rebekah’s son. Then she ran and told her father.

13 When Laban heard the news about Jacob his sister’s son, he ran to meet him, embraced him, kissed him, and brought him to his house. Jacob told Laban all these things.

14 Laban said to him, “You are indeed my bone and my flesh.” Then Jacob stayed with him for about one month.

15 Then Laban said to Jacob, “Should you serve me for nothing because you are my relative? Tell me, what will your wages be?”

16 Now Laban had two daughters. The name of the older was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel.

17 Leah’s eyes were tender, but Rachel was beautiful in form and appearance.

18 Jacob loved Rachel, so he said, “I will serve you seven years for Rachel, your younger daughter.”

19 Laban said, “It is better that I give her to you, than that I should give her to another man. Stay with me.”

20 So Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed to him only a few days, for the love he had for her.

21 Then Jacob said to Laban, “Give me my wife, for my days have been completed, so that I may marry her!”

22 So Laban gathered together all the men of the place and made a feast.

23 In the evening, Laban took Leah his daughter and brought her to Jacob, who made love to her.

24 Laban gave his female servant Zilpah to his daughter Leah, to be her servant.

25 In the morning, behold, it was Leah! Jacob said to Laban, “What is this you have done to me? Did I not serve you for Rachel? Why then have you tricked me?”

26 Laban said, “It is not our custom to give the younger daughter before the firstborn.

27 Complete the bridal week of this daughter, and we will give you the other also in return for serving me another seven years.

28 Jacob did so, and completed Leah’s week. Then Laban gave him Rachel his daughter as his wife also.

29 Laban also gave Bilhah to his daughter Rachel, to be her servant.

30 So Jacob made love to Rachel, too, but he loved Rachel more than Leah. So Jacob served Laban for seven more years.

Jacob’s Children

31 Yehovah saw that Leah was not loved, so he opened her womb, but Rachel was childless.

32 Leah conceived and bore a son, and she called his name Reuben. For she said, “Because Yehovah has looked upon my affliction; surely now my husband will love me.”

33 Then she conceived again and bore a son. She said, “Because Yehovah has heard that I am unloved, he has therefore given me this son also,” and she called his name Simeon.

34 Then she conceived again and bore a son. She said, “Now this time will my husband be attached to me, because I have borne him three sons.” Therefore, his name was called Levi.

35 She conceived again and bore a son. She said, “This time I will praise Yehovah.” Therefore, she called his name Judah; then she stopped having children.


WHEN Rachel saw that she bore Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister. She said to Jacob, “Give me children, or I will die.”

2 Jacob’s anger burned against Rachel. He said, “Am I in the place of the Almighty, who has kept you from having children?”

3 She said, “See, there is my servant Bilhah. Make love to her, so she might give birth to children on my knees, and I will have children by her.”

4 So she gave him her servant Bilhah as a wife, and Jacob had sex with her.

5 Bilhah conceived and bore Jacob a son.

6 Then Rachel said, “The Almighty has judged in my favor. He has listened to my prayer and given me a son.” For this reason she called his name Dan.

7 Bilhah, Rachel’s servant, conceived again and bore Jacob a second son.

8 Rachel said, “With mighty wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister and have prevailed.” She called his name Naphtali.

9 When Leah saw that she had stopped having children, she took Zilpah, her servant, and gave her to Jacob as a wife.

10 Zilpah, Leah’s servant, bore Jacob a son.

11 Leah said, “This is fortunate!” so she called his name Gad.

12 Then Zilpah, Leah’s servant, bore Jacob a second son.

13 Leah said, “I am happy! For the daughters will call me happy.” So she called his name Asher.

14 Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest and found mandrakes in the field. He brought them to his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, “Give me some of your son’s mandrakes.”

15 Leah said to her, “Is it a small matter to you, that you have taken away my husband? Do you now want to take away my son’s mandrakes, too?” Rachel said, “Then he will make love to you tonight, in exchange for your son’s mandrakes.”

16 Jacob came from the field in the evening. Leah went out to meet him and said, “You must make love to me tonight, for I have hired you with my son’s mandrakes.” So Jacob made love to Leah that night.

17 The Almighty listened to Leah, and she conceived and bore Jacob a fifth son.

18 Leah said, “The Almighty has given me my wages, because I gave my servant woman to my husband.” She called his name Issachar.

19 Leah conceived again and bore a sixth son to Jacob.

20 Leah said, “The Almighty has given me a good gift. Now my husband will honor me, because I have borne him six sons.” She called his name Zebulun.

21 Afterwards she bore a daughter and called her name Dinah.

22 The Almighty called Rachel to mind and listened to her. He caused her to become pregnant.

23 She conceived and bore a son. She said, “The Almighty has taken away my shame.”

24 She called his name Joseph, saying, “Yehovah has added to me another son.”

Jacob’s Prosperity

25 After Rachel had borne Joseph, Jacob said to Laban, “Send me away, so that I may go to my own home and to my country.

26 Give me my wives and my children for whom I have served you, and let me go, for you know the service I have given you.

27 Laban said to him, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, wait, because I have learned by using divination that Yehovah has blessed me for your sake.”

28 Then he said, “Name your wages, and I will pay them.”

29 Jacob said to him, “You know how I have served you, and how your livestock have fared with me.

30 For you had little before I came, and it has increased abundantly. Yehovah has blessed you wherever I worked. Now when will I provide for my own household also?

31 So Laban said, “What will I pay you?” Jacob said, “You will not give me anything. If you will do this thing for me, I will again feed your flock and keep it.

32 Let me walk through all your flock today, removing from it every speckled and spotted sheep, and every black one among the sheep, and the spotted and speckled among the goats. These will be my wages.

33 My integrity will testify for me later on, when you come to check on my wages. Every one that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and black among the sheep, if any are found with me, will be considered to be stolen.

34 Laban said, “Agreed. Let it be according to your word.”

35 That day Laban removed the male goats that were striped and spotted, and all the female goats that were speckled and spotted, every one that had white in it, and all the black ones among the sheep, and gave them into the hand of his sons.

36 Laban also put three days’ journey between himself and Jacob. So Jacob kept tending the rest of Laban’s flocks.

37 Jacob took fresh cut branches of fresh poplar, and of the almond and of the plane tree, and peeled white streaks in them, and made the white inner wood appear that was in the sticks.

38 Then he set the sticks that he had peeled in front of the flocks, in front of the watering troughs where they came to drink. They conceived when they came to drink.

39 The flocks bred in front of the sticks; and the flocks produced striped, speckled, and spotted young.

40 Jacob separated out these lambs, but made the rest of them face toward the striped animals and all the black sheep in the flock of Laban. Then he separated out his flocks for himself alone and did not put them together with Laban’s flocks.

41 Whenever the stronger sheep in the flock were breeding, then Jacob would lay the sticks in the watering troughs before the eyes of the flock, so that they might conceive among the sticks.

42 But when the feebler animals in the flock came, he did not put the sticks in front of them. So the feebler animals were Laban’s, and the stronger were Jacob’s.

43 The man became very prosperous. He had large flocks, female servants and male servants, and camels and donkeys.


Jacob Flees from Laban

NOW Jacob heard the words of Laban’s sons, that they said, “Jacob has taken away all that was our father’s, and it is from our father’s possessions that he has gotten all this wealth.”

2 Jacob saw the look on Laban’s face. He saw that his attitude toward him had changed.

3 Then Yehovah said to Jacob, “Return to the land of your fathers and to your relatives, and I will be with you.”

4 Jacob sent and called Rachel and Leah to the field to his flock

5 and said to them, “I see your father’s attitude toward me has changed, but the Almighty of my father has been with me.

6 You know that it is with all my strength that I have served your father.

7 Your father has deceived me and changed my wages ten times, but the Almighty has not permitted him to hurt me.

8 If he said, ‘The speckled animals will be your wages,’ then all the flock bore speckled young. If he said, ‘The striped will be your wages,’ then the whole flock bore striped young.

9 In this way the Almighty has taken away the livestock of your father and given them to me.

10 Once at the time of breeding season, I saw in a dream the male goats that were mating with the flock. The male goats were striped, speckled, and spotted.

11 The angel of the Almighty said to me in the dream, ‘Jacob.’ I said, ‘Here I am.’

12 He said, ’Lift up your eyes and see all the male goats that are breeding with the flock. They are striped, speckled, and spotted, for I have seen everything that Laban is doing to you.

13 I am the Almighty of Bethel, where you anointed a pillar, where you made a vow to me. Now rise up and leave this land and return to the land of your birth.’”

14 Rachel and Leah answered and said to him, “Is there any portion or inheritance for us in our father’s house?

15 Are we not treated by him as foreigners? For he has sold us and has also completely devoured our money.

16 For all the riches that the Almighty has taken away from our father are now ours and our children’s. Now then, whatever the Almighty has said to you, do it.”

17 Then Jacob arose and placed his sons and his wives upon the camels.

18 He drove all his livestock ahead of him, along with all his property, including the livestock he had acquired in Paddan Aram. Then he set out to go to his father Isaac in the land of Canaan.

19 When Laban had gone to shear his sheep, Rachel stole her father’s household gods.

20 Jacob also deceived Laban the Aramean, by not telling him that he was leaving.

21 So he fled with all that he had and quickly passed over the River, and headed toward the hill country of Gilead.

22 On the third day Laban was told that Jacob had fled.

23 So he took his relatives with him and pursued him for a seven days’ journey. He overtook him in the hill country of Gilead.

24 Now the Almighty came to Laban the Aramean in a dream at night and said to him, “Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad.”

25 Laban overtook Jacob. Now Jacob had pitched his tent in the hill country. Laban also camped with his relatives in the hill country of Gilead.

26 Laban said to Jacob, “What have you done, that you deceived me and carried away my daughters like prisoners of war?

27 Why did you flee secretly and trick me and did not tell me? I would have sent you away with celebration and with songs, with tambourine and with harps.

28 You did not allow me to kiss my grandsons and my daughters good bye. Now you have done foolishly.

29 It is in my power to do you harm, but the Almighty of your father spoke to me last night and said, ‘Be careful that you speak to Jacob neither good nor bad.’

30 Now you have gone away because you longed to return to your father’s house. But why did you steal my gods?”

31 Jacob answered and said to Laban, “Because, I was afraid and thought that you would take your daughters from me by force; I left secretly.

32 Whoever has stolen your gods will not continue to live. In the presence of our relatives, identify whatever with me is yours and take it.” For Jacob did not know that Rachel had stolen them.

33 Laban went into Jacob’s tent, into Leah’s tent, and into the tent of the two female servants, but he did not find them. He went out of Leah’s tent and entered into Rachel’s tent.

34 Now Rachel had taken the household gods, put them in a camel’s saddle, and sat upon them. Laban searched the whole tent, but did not find them.

35 She said to her father, “Do not be angry, my master, that I cannot stand up before you, for I am having my period.” So he searched but did not find his household gods.

36 Jacob was angry and argued with Laban. He said to him, “What is my offense? What is my sin, that you have hotly pursued after me?

37 For you have searched all my possessions. What have you found of all your household goods? Set them here before our relatives, so that they may judge between us two.

38 For twenty years I have been with you. Your ewes and your female goats have not miscarried, nor have I eaten any rams from your flocks.

39 What was torn by beasts I did not bring to you. Instead, I bore the loss of it. You always made me pay for every missing animal, whether stolen by day or stolen by night.

40 There I was; in the day the heat consumed me, and the frost by night; and I went without sleep.

41 These twenty years I have been in your household. I worked for you fourteen years for your two daughters, and six years for your flock. You have changed my wages ten times.

42 Unless the Almighty of my father, the Almighty of Abraham, and the One Isaac fears, had been with me, surely now you would have sent me away empty-handed. The Almighty has seen my oppression and how hard I worked, and he rebuked you last night.

43 Laban answered and said to Jacob, “The daughters are my daughters, the grandchildren are my grandchildren, and the flocks are my flocks. All that you see is mine. But what can I do today to these my daughters, or to their children whom they have borne?

44 So now, let us make a covenant, you and I, and let it be for a witness between you and me.

45 So Jacob took a stone and set it up as a pillar.

46 Jacob said to his relatives, “Gather stones.” So they took stones and made a pile. Then they ate there by the pile.

47 Laban called it Jegar Saha Dutha, but Jacob called it Galeed.

48 Laban said, “This pile is a witness between me and you today.” Therefore, its name was called Galeed.

49 It is also called Mizpah, because Laban said, “May Yehovah watch between you and me, when we are out of sight one from another.

50 If you mistreat my daughters, or if you take any wives besides my daughters, although no one else is with us, see, the Almighty is witness between you and me.

51 Laban said to Jacob, “Look at this pile, and look at the pillar, which I have set between you and me.

52 This pile is a witness, and the pillar is a witness, that I will not pass beyond this pile to you, and that you will not pass beyond this pile and this pillar to me, to do harm.

53 May the Almighty of Abraham, and the god of Nahor, the gods of their father, judge between us.” Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac.

54 Jacob offered a sacrifice on the mountain and called his relatives to eat a meal. They ate and spent the entire night on the mountain.

55 Early in the morning Laban got up, kissed his grandsons and his daughters and blessed them. Then Laban left and returned home.


Jacob Fears Esau

JACOB also went on his way, and the angels of the Almighty met him.

2 When Jacob saw them, he said, “This is the Almighty’s camp,” so he called the name of that place Mahanaim.

3 Jacob sent messengers on ahead of him to his brother Esau in the land of Seir, in the region of Edom.

4 He commanded them, saying, “This is what you will say to my master Esau: This is what your servant Jacob says: ’I have been staying with Laban, and have delayed my return until now.

5 I have oxen, donkeys, and flocks, male servants, and female servants. I have sent this message to my master, so that I may find favor in your sight.’”

6 The messengers returned to Jacob and said, “We went to your brother Esau. He is coming to meet you, and four hundred men are with him.”

7 Then Jacob was very afraid and upset. So he divided the people who were with him into two camps, and also the flocks, the herds, and the camels.

8 He said, “If Esau comes to one camp and attacks it, then the camp that is left will escape.”

9 Jacob said, “The Almighty of my father Abraham, and the Almighty of my father Isaac, Yehovah, who said to me, ‘Return to your country and to your kindred, and I will prosper you,’

10 I am not worthy of all your acts of covenant faithfulness and of all the trustworthiness that you have done for your servant. For with only my staff I passed over this Jordan, and now I have become two camps.

11 Please rescue me from the hand of my brother, from the hand of Esau, for I am afraid of him, that he will come and attack me and the mothers with the children.

12 But you said, ‘I will certainly make you prosper. I will make your descendants like the sand of the sea, which cannot be numbered for their number.’”

13 Jacob stayed there that night. He took some of what he had with him as a gift for Esau, his brother:

14 two hundred female goats and twenty male goats, two hundred ewes and twenty rams,

15 thirty milking camels and their colts, forty cows and ten bulls, twenty female donkeys and ten male donkeys.

16 These he gave into the hand of his servants, every herd by itself. He said to his servants, “Go on ahead of me and put a space between each of the herds.”

17 He instructed the first servant, saying, “When Esau my brother meets you and asks you, saying, ‘To whom do you belong? Where are you going? Whose animals are these that are in front of you?’

18 Then you will say, ‘They are your servant Jacob’s. They are a gift sent to my master Esau. See, he is also coming after us.’”

19 Jacob also gave instructions to the second group, the third, and all the men who followed the herds. He said, “You will say the same thing to Esau when you meet him.

20 You must also say, ‘Your servant Jacob is coming after us.’” For he thought, “I will appease him with the gifts that I am sending ahead of me. Then later, when I will see him, perhaps he will receive me.”

21 So the gifts went on ahead of him. He himself stayed that night in the camp.

Jacob Wrestles with Yehovah

22 Jacob got up during the night, and took his two wives, his two women servants, and his eleven sons. He sent them across the ford of the Jabbok.

23 In this way he sent them across the stream along with all his possessions.

24 Jacob was left alone, and a man wrestled with him until daybreak.

25 When the man saw that he could not defeat him, he struck Jacob’s hip. Jacob’s hip was dislocated as he wrestled with him.

26 The man said, “Let me go, for the dawn is breaking.” Jacob said, “I will not let you go unless you bless me.”

27 The man said to him, “What is your name?” Jacob said, “Jacob.”

28 The man said, “Your name will no longer be called Jacob, but Israel. For you have struggled with the Almighty and with men and have prevailed.”

29 Jacob asked him, “Please tell me your name.” He said, “Why is it that you ask my name?” Then he blessed him there.

30 Jacob called the name of the place Peniel for he said, “I have seen the Almighty face to face, and my life is delivered.”

31 The sun rose on Jacob as he passed Peniel. He was limping because of his hip.

32 That is why to this day the people of Israel do not eat the ligaments of the hip which are at the hip joint, because the man injured those ligaments while dislocating Jacob’s hip.


Jacob Meets Esau

JACOB looked up and behold, Esau was coming, and with him were four hundred men. Jacob divided the children among Leah, Rachel, and the two female servants.

2 Then he put the female servants and their children in front, followed by Leah and her children, and followed by Rachel and Joseph last of all.

3 He himself went on ahead of them. He bowed toward the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.

4 Esau ran to meet him, embraced him, hugged his neck, and kissed him. Then they wept.

5 When Esau looked up, he saw the women and the children. He said, “Who are these people with you?” Jacob said, “The children whom the Almighty has graciously given your servant.”

6 Then the female servants came forward with their children, and they bowed down.

7 Next Leah also and her children came forward and bowed down. Finally Joseph and Rachel came forward and bowed down.

8 Esau said, “What do you mean by all these groups that I met?” Jacob said, “To find favor in the sight of my master.”

9 Esau said, “I have enough, my brother. Keep what you have for yourself.”

10 Jacob said, “No, please, if I have found favor in your sight, then accept my gift from my hand, for indeed, I have seen your face, and it is like seeing the face of the Almighty, and you have accepted me.

11 Please accept my gift that was brought to you, because the Almighty has dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough.” Thus Jacob urged him, and Esau accepted it.

12 Then Esau said, “Let us be on our way. I will go before you.”

13 Jacob said to him, “My master knows that the children are young, and that the sheep and the cattle are nursing their young. If they are driven hard even one day, all the animals will die.

14 Please let my master go on ahead of his servant. I will travel more slowly, at the pace of the livestock that are before me, and at the pace of the children, until I come to my master in Seir.

15 Esau said, “Let me leave with you some of my men who are with me.” But Jacob said, “Why do that? My master has already been kind enough to me.”

16 So Esau that day started on his way back to Seir.

17 Jacob traveled to Succoth, built himself a house, and made shelters for his livestock. Therefore, the name of the place is called Succoth.

18 When Jacob came from Paddan Aram, he arrived safely at the city of Shechem, which is in the land of Canaan. He camped near the city.

19 Then he bought the piece of ground where he had pitched his tent from the sons of Hamor, Shechem’s father, for a hundred pieces of silver.

20 There he set up an altar and called it El Elohe Israel.


The Defiling of Dinah

NOW Dinah, Leah’s daughter whom she bore to Jacob, went out to meet the young women of the land.

2 Shechem son of Hamor the Hivite, the prince of the land, saw her and he grabbed her, assaulted her, and raped her.

3 He was drawn to Dinah, the daughter of Jacob. He loved the young woman and spoke tenderly to her.

4 Shechem spoke to his father Hamor, saying, “Get this young woman for me as a wife.”

5 Now Jacob heard that he had defiled Dinah his daughter. His sons were with his livestock in the field, so Jacob held his peace until they came.

6 Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him.

7 The sons of Jacob came in from the field when they heard of the matter. The men were offended. They were very angry because he had disgraced Israel by forcing himself on Jacob’s daughter, for such a thing should not have been done.

8 Hamor spoke with them, saying, “My son Shechem loves your daughter. Please give her to him as a wife.

9 Intermarry with us, give your daughters to us, and take our daughters for yourselves.

10 You will live with us, and the land will be open to you to live and trade in, and to acquire property.

11 Shechem said to her father and to her brothers, “Let me find favor in your eyes, and whatever you tell me I will give.

12 Ask me for as great a bride price and gift as you will, and I will give whatever you say to me, but give me the young woman as a wife.

13 The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and Hamor his father with deceit, because Shechem had defiled Dinah their sister.

14 They said to them, “We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to anyone who is uncircumcised; for that would be a disgrace to us.

15 Only on this condition will we agree with you: If you will become circumcised as we are, if every male among you is circumcised.

16 Then will we give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters to ourselves, and we will live with you and become one people.

17 But if you do not listen to us and become circumcised, then we will take our sister and we will leave.

18 Their words pleased Hamor and his son Shechem.

19 The young man did not delay to do what they said, because he delighted in Jacob’s daughter, and because he was the most honored person in all his father’s household.

20 Hamor and Shechem his son went to the gate of their city and spoke with the men of their city, saying,

21 “These men are at peace with us, so let them live in the land and trade in it for, really, the land is large enough for them. Let us take their daughters as wives, and let us give them our daughters.

22 Only on this condition will the men agree to live with us and become one people: If every male among us is circumcised, as they are circumcised.

23 Will not their livestock and their property, all their animals be ours? So let us agree with them, and they will live among us.”

24 All the men of the city listened to Hamor and Shechem, his son. Every male was circumcised.

25 On the third day, when they were still in pain, two of the sons of Jacob, Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers, each took his sword and they attacked the city that was certain of its security, and they killed all the males.

26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with the edge of the sword. They took Dinah from Shechem’s house and went away.

27 The other sons of Jacob came to the dead bodies and looted the city, because the people had defiled their sister.

28 They took their flocks, their herds, their donkeys, and everything in the city and in the surrounding fields with

29 all their wealth. All their children and their wives, they captured. They even took everything that was in the houses.

30 Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought trouble on me, to make me stink to the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites and the Perizzites. I am few in number. If they gather themselves together against me and attack me, then I will be destroyed, I and my household.”

31 But Simeon and Levi said, “Should Shechem have dealt with our sister as with a prostitute?”


Yehovah Blesses and Renames Jacob

THE Almighty said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel, and stay there. Build an altar there to the Almighty, who appeared to you when you fled from Esau your brother.”

2 Then Jacob said to his household and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves, and change your clothes.

3 Then let us depart and go up to Bethel. I will build an altar there to the Almighty, who answered me in the day of my distress, and has been with me wherever I have gone.

4 So they gave to Jacob all the foreign gods that were in their hand, and the rings that were in their ears. Jacob buried them under the oak that was near Shechem.

5 As they traveled, the Almighty made panic to fall on the cities that were around them, so those people did not pursue the sons of Jacob.

6 So Jacob arrived at Luz, that is, Bethel, which is in the land of Canaan, he and all the people who were with him.

7 He built an altar there and called the place El Bethel, because there the Almighty had revealed himself to him, when he was fleeing from his brother.

8 Deborah, Rebekah’s nurse, died. She was buried down from Bethel under the oak tree, so it was called Allon Bacuth.

9 When Jacob came from Paddan Aram, the Almighty appeared to him again and blessed him.

10 The Almighty said to him, “Your name is Jacob, but your name will no longer be called Jacob. Your name will be Israel.” So the Almighty called his name Israel.

11 The Almighty said to him, “I am El Shaddai. Be fruitful and multiply. An ethno-linguistic nation and a company of ethno-linguistic nations will come from you, and kings will be among your descendants.

12 The land that I gave to Abraham and Isaac, I will give to you. To your descendants after you I also give the land.

13 The Almighty went up from him in the place where he spoke with him.

14 Jacob set up a pillar in the place where the Almighty had spoken to him, a pillar of stone. He poured out a drink offering over it and poured oil on it.

15 Jacob called the name of the place where the Almighty spoke with him, Bethel.

The Deaths of Rachel and Isaac

16 They journeyed on from Bethel. While they were still some distance from Ephrath, Rachel went into labor. She had hard labor.

17 While she was in hardest labor, the midwife said to her, “Do not be afraid, for now you will have another son.”

18 As she was dying, with her dying breath she named him Benoni, but his father called him Benjamin.

19 Rachel died and was buried on the way to Ephrath, that is, Bethlehem.

20 Jacob set up a pillar upon her grave. It is the marker of Rachel’s grave to this day.

21 Israel traveled on and pitched his tent beyond the watchtower of the flock.

22 While Israel was living in that land, Reuben slept with Bilhah his father’s concubine, and Israel heard of it. Now Jacob had twelve sons.

23 His sons by Leah were Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn, and Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun.

24 His sons by Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin.

25 His sons by Bilhah, Rachel’s female servant, were Dan and Naphtali.

26 The sons of Zilpah, Leah’s female servant, were Gad and Asher. All these were the sons of Jacob who were born to him in Paddan Aram.

27 Jacob came to Isaac, his father, in Mamre in Kiriath Arba, the same as Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac had lived.

28 Isaac lived for one hundred eighty years.

29 Isaac breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his ancestors, an old man full of days. Esau and Jacob, his sons, buried him.


Esau’s Descendants

THESE were the descendants of Esau, also called Edom.

2 Esau took his wives from the Canaanites. These were his wives: Adah the daughter of Elon the Hethite; Oholibamah the daughter of Anah, the granddaughter of Zibeon the Hivite;

3 and Basemath, Ishmael’s daughter, sister of Nebaioth.

4 Adah bore Eliphaz to Esau, and Basemath bore Reuel.

5 Oholibamah bore Jeush, Jalam, and Korah. These were the sons of Esau who were born to him in the land of Canaan.

6 Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the members of his household, his livestock, all his animals, and all his possessions, which he had gathered in the land of Canaan, and went into a land away from his brother Jacob.

7 He did this because their possessions were too many for them to stay together. The land where they had settled could not support them because of their livestock.

8 So Esau, also known as Edom, settled in the hill country of Seir.

9 These were the descendants of Esau, the ancestor of the Edomites in the hill country of Seir.

10 These were the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz son of Adah, the wife of Esau; Reuel son of Basemath, the wife of Esau.

11 The sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, Gatam, and Kenaz.

12 Timna, a concubine of Eliphaz, Esau’s son, bore Amalek. These were the grandsons of Adah, Esau’s wife.

13 These were the sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the grandsons of Basemath, Esau’s wife.

14 These were the sons of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife, who was the daughter of Anah and the granddaughter of Zibeon. She bore to Esau Jeush, Jalam, and Korah.

15 These were the clans among Esau’s descendants: the descendants of Eliphaz, the firstborn of Esau: Teman, Omar, Zepho, Kenaz,

16 Korah, Gatam, and Amalek. These were the clans descended from Eliphaz in the land of Edom. They were the grandsons of Adah.

17 These were the clans from Reuel, Esau’s son: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, Mizzah. These were the clans descended from Reuel in the land of Edom. They were the grandsons of Basemath, Esau’s wife.

18 These were the clans of Oholibamah, Esau’s wife: Jeush, Jalam, Korah. These are the clans that descended from Esau’s wife Oholibamah, daughter of Anah.

19 These were the sons of Esau, and these are their clans.

20 These were the sons of Seir the Horite, the inhabitants of the land: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, Anah,

21 Dishon, Ezer, and Dishan. These were the clans of the Horites, the inhabitants of Seir in the land of Edom.

22 The sons of Lotan were Hori and Heman, and Timna was Lotan’s sister.

23 These were the sons of Shobal: Alvan, Manahath, Ebal, Shepho, and Onam.

24 These were the sons of Zibeon: Aiah and Anah. This is Anah who found the hot springs in the wilderness, as he was pasturing donkeys of Zibeon his father.

25 These were the children of Anah: Dishon and Oholibamah, the daughter of Anah.

26 These were the sons of Dishon: Hemdan, Eshban, Ithran, and Keran.

27 These were the sons of Ezer: Bilhan, Zaavan, and Akan.

28 These were the sons of Dishan: Uz and Aran.

29 These were the clans of the Horites: Lotan, Shobal, Zibeon, and Anah,

30 Dishon, Ezer, Dishan: these were clans of the Horites, according to their clan lists in the land of Seir.

31 These were the kings who reigned in the land of Edom before any king reigned over the Israelites:

32 Bela son of Beor, reigned in Edom, and the name of his city was Dinhabah.

33 When Bela died, then Jobab son of Zerah of Bozrah, reigned in his place.

34 When Jobab died, Husham who was of the land of the Temanites, reigned in his place.

35 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad who defeated the Midianites in the land of Moab, reigned in his place. The name of his city was Avith.

36 When Hadad died, then Samlah of Masrekah reigned in his place.

37 When Samlah died, then Shaul of Rehoboth by the river reigned in his place.

38 When Shaul died, then Baal Hanan son of Achbor reigned in his place.

39 When Baal Hanan son of Achbor, died, then Hadar reigned in his place. The name of his city was Pau. His wife’s name was Mehetabel, the daughter of Matred, the granddaughter of Me Zahab.

40 These were the names of the heads of clans from Esau’s descendants, according to their clans and their regions, by their names: Timna, Alvah, Jetheth,

41 Oholibamah, Elah, Pinon,

42 Kenaz, Teman, Mibzar,

43 Magdiel, and Iram. These were the clan heads of Edom, according to their settlements in the land they possessed. This was Esau, the father of the Edomites.


Joseph’s Dreams

JACOB lived in the land where his father was staying, in the land of Canaan.

2 These were the events concerning Jacob. Joseph, who was a young man seventeen years old, was guarding the flock with his brothers. He was with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah, his father’s wives. Joseph brought an unfavorable report about them to their father.

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his sons because he was the son of his old age. He made him a beautiful garment.

4 His brothers saw that their father loved him more than all his brothers. They hated him and would not speak cordially to him.

5 Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told his brothers about it. They hated him even more.

6 He said to them, “Please listen to this dream which I dreamed.

7 Behold, we were tying bundles of grain in the field and behold, my bundle rose and stood upright, and behold, your bundles came around and bowed down to my bundle.

8 His brothers said to him, “Will you really reign over us? Will you actually rule over us?” They hated him even more for his dreams and for his words.

9 He dreamed another dream and told it to his brothers. He said, “Look, I have dreamed another dream: The sun and the moon and eleven stars bowed down to me.”

10 He told it to his father just as to his brothers, and his father rebuked him. He said to him, “What is this dream that you have dreamed? Will your mother and I and your brothers actually come to bow down to the ground to you?”

11 His brothers were jealous of him, but his father kept the matter in mind.

Joseph Sold by His Brothers

12 His brothers went to tend their father’s flock in Shechem.

13 Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers tending the flock in Shechem? Come, and I will send you to them.” Joseph said to him, “I am ready.”

14 He said to him, “Go now, see whether it is well with your brothers and well with the flock, and bring me word.” So Jacob sent him out of the Valley of Hebron, and Joseph went to Shechem.

15 A certain man found Joseph. Behold, Joseph was wandering in a field. The man asked him, “What do you seek?”

16 Joseph said, “I am seeking my brothers. Tell me, please, where they are tending the flock.”

17 The man said, “They left this place, for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’” Joseph went after his brothers and found them at Dothan.

18 They saw him from a distance, and before he came near to them, they plotted against him to kill him.

19 His brothers said to one another, “Look, this dreamer is approaching.

20 Come now, therefore, let us kill him and cast him into one of the pits. We will say, ‘A wild animal has devoured him.’ We will see what will become of his dreams.”

21 Reuben heard it and rescued him from their hand. He said, “Let us not take his life.”

22 Reuben said to them, “Shed no blood. Throw him into this pit that is in the wilderness, but lay no hand upon him”, that he might rescue him out of their hand to bring him back to his father.

23 It came about that when Joseph reached his brothers, they stripped him of his beautiful garment.

24 They took him and threw him into the pit. The pit was empty with no water in it.

25 They sat down to eat bread. They lifted up their eyes and looked, and behold, a caravan of Ishmaelites was coming from Gilead, with their camels bearing spices and balm and myrrh. They were traveling to carry them down to Egypt.

26 Judah said to his brothers, “What profit is it if we kill our brother and cover up his blood?

27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmaelites and not lay our hands upon him. For he is our brother, our flesh.” His brothers listened to him.

28 The Midianite merchants passed by. His brothers drew Joseph up and lifted him up out of the pit. They sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites for twenty pieces of silver. The Ishmaelites carried Joseph into Egypt.

29 Reuben returned to the pit, and behold, Joseph was not in the pit. He tore his clothes.

30 He returned to his brothers and said, “The boy is not there! And I, where can I go?”

31 They slaughtered a goat and then took Joseph’s garment and dipped it into the blood.

32 Then they brought it to their father and said, “We found this. Please see whether it is your son’s clothing or not.”

33 Jacob recognized it and said, “It is my son’s clothing. A wild animal has devoured him. Joseph has certainly been torn to pieces.”

34 Jacob tore his garments and put sackcloth upon his loins. He mourned for his son many days.

35 All his sons and daughters rose up to comfort him, but he refused to be comforted. He said, “Indeed I will go down to Sheol mourning for my son.” His father wept for him.

36 The Midianites sold him in Egypt to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, the captain of the bodyguard.


Judah and Tamar

IT came about at that time that Judah left his brothers and stayed with a certain Adullamite, whose name was Hirah.

2 He met there a daughter of a Canaanite man whose name was Shua. He married her and made love to her.

3 She became pregnant and had a son. He was named Er.

4 She became pregnant again and had a son. She called his name Onan.

5 She again had a son and called his name Shelah. It was at Chezib where she gave birth to him.

6 Judah found a wife for Er, his firstborn. Her name was Tamar.

7 Er, Judah’s firstborn, was wicked in the sight of Yehovah. Yehovah killed him.

8 Judah said to Onan, “Have sex with your brother’s wife. Do the duty of a brother-in-law to her, and raise up a child for your brother.”

9 Onan knew that the child would not be his. Whenever he had sex with his brother’s wife, he spilled the semen on the ground so he would not have a child for his brother.

10 What he did was evil in the sight of Yehovah. Yehovah killed him also.

11 Then Judah said to Tamar, his daughter-in-law, “Remain a widow in your father’s house until Shelah, my son, grows up.” For he feared, “He might also die, just like his brothers.” Tamar left and lived in her father’s house.

12 After a long time, Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died. Judah was comforted and went up to his sheepshearers at Timnah, he and his friend Hirah the Adullamite.

13 Tamar was told, “Look, your father-in-law is going up to Timnah to shear his sheep.”

14 She took off the clothing of her widowhood and covered herself with her veil and wrapped herself. She sat in the gate of Enaim, which is by the road to Timnah. For she saw that Shelah had grown up but she had not been given to him as a wife.

15 When Judah saw her he thought that she was a prostitute because she had covered her face.

16 He went to her by the road and said, “Come, please let me have sex with you”, for he did not know that she was his daughter-in-law, and she said, “What will you give me so you can have sex with me?”

17 He said, “I will send you a young goat from the flock.” She said, “Will you give me a pledge until you send it?”

18 He said, “What pledge can I give you?” She replied, “Your seal and cord, and the staff that is in your hand.” He gave them to her and had sex with her, and she became pregnant by him.

19 She got up and went away. She took off her veil and put on the clothing of her widowhood.

20 Judah sent the young goat from the flock with his friend the Adullamite to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand, but he did not find her.

21 Then the Adullamite asked the men of the place, “Where is the cultic prostitute who was at Enaim by the road?” They said, “There has not been a cultic prostitute here.”

22 He returned to Judah and said, “I did not find her. Also, the men of the place said, ‘There has not been a cultic prostitute here.’”

23 Judah said, “Let her keep the things, that we not be put to shame. Indeed, I sent this young goat, but you did not find her.”

24 It came about after about three months that it was told to Judah, “Tamar your daughter-in-law has committed prostitution, and indeed, she is pregnant by it.” Judah said, “Bring her here and let her be burned.”

25 When she was brought out, she sent to her father-in-law a message, “By the man who owns these I am pregnant.” She said, “Determine please whose these are, the seal and cords and staff.”

26 Judah recognized them and said, “She is more righteous than I am, since I did not give her as a wife to Shelah, my son.” He did not have sex with her again.

27 It came about at the time for her to give birth that, behold, twins were in her womb.

28 It came about as she was giving birth one put out a hand, and the midwife took a scarlet thread and tied it on his hand and said, “This one came out first.”

29 But then he drew back his hand, and behold, his brother came out first. The midwife said, “How you have broken out!” So he was named Perez.

30 Then his brother came out, who had the scarlet thread upon his hand, and he was named Zerah.


Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife

JOSEPH was brought down to Egypt. Potiphar, an official of Pharaoh who was captain of the guard and an Egyptian, bought him from the Ishmaelites, who had brought him down there.

2 Yehovah was with Joseph and he became a prosperous man. He lived in the house of his Egyptian master.

3 His master saw that Yehovah was with him and that Yehovah prospered everything that he did.

4 Joseph found favor in his sight. He served Potiphar. Potiphar made Joseph manager over his house, and everything that he possessed, he put under his care.

5 It came about from the time that he made him manager over his house and over everything he possessed, that Yehovah blessed the Egyptian’s house because of Joseph. The blessing of Yehovah was on everything that Potiphar had in the house and in the field.

6 Potiphar put everything that he had under Joseph’s care. He did not have to think about anything except the food that he ate. Now Joseph was handsome and attractive.

7 It came about after this that his master’s wife lusted for Joseph. She said, “Have sex with me.”

8 But he refused and said to his master’s wife, “Look, my master does not pay attention to what I do in the house, and he has put everything that he owns under my care.

9 No one is greater in this house than I am. He has not kept back anything from me but you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness and sin against the Almighty?

10 She spoke to Joseph day after day, but he refused to have sex with her or to be with her.

11 It came about one day that he went into the house to do his work. None of the men of the house were there in the house.

12 She caught him by his clothes and said, “Have sex with me.” He left his clothing in her hand, fled, and went outside.

13 It came about, when she saw that he had left his clothing in her hand and had fled outside,

14 that she called to the men of her house and told them, “See, Potiphar has brought in a Hebrew to mock us. He came in to me to have sex with me, and I screamed.

15 It came about when he heard me scream, that he left his clothing with me, fled, and went outside.

16 She set his clothing next to her until his master came home.

17 She told him this explanation, “The Hebrew servant whom you brought to us, came in to mock me.

18 It came about that when I screamed, he left his clothing with me and fled outside.

19 It came about that, when his master heard the explanation his wife told him, “This is what your servant did to me,” he became very angry.

20 Joseph’s master took him and put him in prison, the place where the king’s prisoners were confined. He was there in the prison.

21 But Yehovah was with Joseph and showed covenant faithfulness to him. He gave him favor in the sight of the prison warden.

22 The prison warden gave into Joseph’s hand all the prisoners who were in the prison. Whatever they did there, Joseph was in charge of it.

23 The prison warden did not worry about anything that was in his hand, because Yehovah was with him. Whatever he did, Yehovah prospered.


Joseph Interprets Two Prisoners’ Dreams

IT came about that after these things, the cupbearer of the king of Egypt and king’s baker offended their master, the king of Egypt.

2 Pharaoh was angry with his two officials, the chief of the cupbearers and the chief of the bakers.

3 He put them in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, in the same prison where Joseph was confined.

4 The captain of the guard assigned Joseph to be their servant. They remained in custody for some time.

5 Both of them dreamed a dream, the cupbearer and the baker of the king of Egypt who were confined in the prison, each man had his own dream in the same night, and each dream had its own interpretation.

6 Joseph came to them in the morning and saw them. Behold, they were sad.

7 He asked Pharaoh’s officials who were with him in custody in his master’s house, saying, “Why do you look so sad today?”

8 They said to him, “We have both dreamed a dream and no one can interpret it.” Joseph said to them, “Do not interpretations belong to the Almighty? Tell me, please.”

9 The chief of the cupbearers told his dream to Joseph. He said to him, “In my dream, behold, a vine was in front of me.

10 In the vine were three branches. As it budded, its blossoms came out and the clusters of grapes ripened.

11 Pharaoh’s cup was in my hand. I took the grapes and squeezed them into Pharaoh’s cup, and I placed the cup into Pharaoh’s hand.”

12 Joseph said to him, “This is the interpretation of it. The three branches are three days.

13 Within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head and restore you to your office. You will put Pharaoh’s cup into his hand, just as when you were his cupbearer.

14 But think of me when it goes well with you, and please show kindness to me. Mention me to Pharaoh and bring me out of this prison.

15 For indeed I was abducted out of the land of the Hebrews. Here also have I done nothing that they should put me in this dungeon.

16 When the chief of the bakers saw that the interpretation was favorable, he said to Joseph, “I also had a dream, and behold, three baskets of bread were on my head.

17 In the top basket there were all kinds of baked goods for Pharaoh, but the birds ate them out of the basket on my head.

18 Joseph answered and said, “This is the interpretation. The three baskets are three days.

19 Within three days Pharaoh will lift up your head from you and will hang you on a tree. The birds will eat your flesh off you.

20 It came about on the third day that it was Pharaoh’s birthday. He made a feast for all his servants. He “lifted up” the head of the chief of the cupbearers and the head of the chief of the bakers, among his servants.

21 He restored the chief of the cupbearers to his responsibility, and he put the cup into Pharaoh’s hand again.

22 But he hanged the chief of the bakers, just as Joseph had interpreted to them.

23 Yet the chief of the cupbearers did not remember to help Joseph. Instead, he forgot about him.


Joseph Interprets Pharaoh’s Dreams

IT came about at the end of two full years that Pharaoh had a dream. Behold, he stood by the Nile.

2 Behold, seven cows came up out of the Nile, desirable and fat, and they grazed in the reeds.

3 Behold, seven other cows came up after them out of the Nile, undesirable and thin. They stood by the other cows on the bank of the river.

4 Then the undesirable and thin cows ate the seven desirable and fat cows. Then Pharaoh woke up.

5 Then he slept and dreamed a second time. Behold, seven heads of grain came up on one stalk, wholesome and good.

6 Behold, seven heads, thin and scorched by the east wind, sprouted up after them.

7 The thin heads swallowed up the seven wholesome and full heads. Pharaoh woke up, and behold, it was a dream.

8 It came about in the morning that his spirit was troubled. He sent and called for all the magicians and wise men of Egypt. Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpret them to Pharaoh.

9 Then the chief cupbearer said to Pharaoh, “Today I am thinking about my offenses.

10 Pharaoh was angry with his servants, and put me in custody in the house of the captain of the guard, the chief baker and me.

11 We dreamed a dream the same night, he and I. We dreamed each man according to the interpretation of his dream.

12 There was with us there a young Hebrew man, a servant of the captain of the guard. We told him and he interpreted for us our dreams. He interpreted for each of us according to his dream.

13 It came about as he interpreted for us, so it happened. Pharaoh restored me to my post, but the other one he hanged.

14 Then Pharaoh sent and called for Joseph. They quickly took him out of the dungeon. He shaved himself, changed his clothes, and came in to Pharaoh.

15 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I had a dream, but there is no interpreter for it. But I have heard about you, that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.”

16 Joseph answered Pharaoh, saying, “It is not in me. The Almighty will answer Pharaoh with favor.”

17 Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, “In my dream, behold, I stood on the bank of the Nile.

18 Behold, seven cows came up out of the Nile, fat and desirable, and they grazed among the reeds.

19 Behold, seven other cows came up after them, weak, very undesirable, and thin. I never saw in all the land of Egypt such undesirableness like them.

20 The thin and undesirable cows ate up the first seven fat cows.

21 When they had eaten them up, it could not be known that they had eaten them, for they were still as undesirable as before. Then I awoke.

22 I looked in my dream, and behold, seven heads came up upon one stalk, full and good.

23 Behold, seven more heads, withered, thin and scorched by the east wind, sprang up after them.

24 The thin heads swallowed up the seven good heads. I told these dreams to the magicians, but there was none that could explain it to me.

25 Joseph said to Pharaoh, “The dreams of Pharaoh are the same. What the Almighty is about to do, he has declared to Pharaoh.

26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good heads are seven years. The dreams are the same.

27 The seven thin and undesirable cows that came up after them are seven years, and also the seven thin heads scorched by the east wind will be seven years of famine.

28 That is the thing which I spoke to Pharaoh. What the Almighty is about to do he has revealed to Pharaoh.

29 Look, seven years of great abundance will come throughout all the land of Egypt.

30 Seven years of famine will come after them, and all the abundance will be forgotten in the land of Egypt, and the famine will devastate the land.

31 The abundance will not be remembered in the land because of the famine that will follow, for it will be very severe.

32 That the dream was repeated to Pharaoh is because the matter has been established by the Almighty, and the Almighty will soon do it.

33 Now let Pharaoh look for a man discerning and wise, and put him over the land of Egypt.

34 Let Pharaoh do this: Let him appoint overseers over the land. Let them take a fifth of the crops of Egypt in the seven abundant years.

35 Let them gather all the food of these good years that are coming and store up grain under the authority of Pharaoh, for food to be used in the cities. They should preserve it.

36 The food will be a supply for the land for the seven years of famine which will be in the land of Egypt. In this way the land will not be devastated by the famine.

Joseph Rises to Power

37 This advice was good in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants.

38 Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we find such a man as this, in whom is the Ruach of the Almighty?”

39 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since the Almighty has shown you all this, there is none so discerning and wise as you.

40 You will be over my house, and according to your word will all my people be ruled. Only in the throne will I be greater than you.

41 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have put you over all the land of Egypt.”

42 Pharaoh took off his signet ring from his hand and put it upon Joseph’s hand. He clothed him with clothes of fine linen, and put a gold chain on his neck.

43 He had him ride in the second chariot which he possessed. Men shouted before him, “Bend the knee.” Pharaoh put him over all the land of Egypt.

44 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and apart from you, no man will lift his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt.”

45 Pharaoh called Joseph’s name “Zaphenath Paneah.” He gave him Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, as a wife. Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.

46 Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Joseph went out from the presence of Pharaoh, and went throughout all the land of Egypt.

47 In the seven bountiful years the land produced abundantly.

48 He gathered up all the food of the seven years that was in the land of Egypt and put the food in the cities. He put into each city the food from the fields that surrounded it.

49 Joseph stored up grain like the sand of the sea, so much that he stopped counting, because it was beyond counting.

50 Joseph had two sons before the years of famine came, whom Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On, bore to him.

51 Joseph called the name of his firstborn Manasseh, for he said, “The Almighty has made me forget all my trouble and all my father’s household.”

52 He called the name of the second son Ephraim, for he said, “The Almighty has made me fruitful in the land of my affliction.”

53 The seven years of abundance that was in the land of Egypt came to an end.

54 The seven years of famine began, as Joseph had said. There was famine in all lands, but in all the land of Egypt there was food.

55 When all the land of Egypt was famished, the people loudly called on Pharaoh for food. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians, “Go to Joseph and do what he says.”

56 The famine was over all the face of the whole land. Joseph opened all the storehouses and sold to the Egyptians. The famine was severe in the land of Egypt.

57 All the earth was coming to Egypt to buy grain from Joseph, because the famine was severe in all the earth.


Joseph’s Brothers Go to Egypt

NOW Jacob became aware that there was grain in Egypt. He said to his sons, “Why do you look at one another?”

2 He said, “See here, I have heard that there is grain in Egypt. Go down there and buy for us from there so we may live and not die.”

3 Joseph’s ten brothers went down to buy grain from Egypt.

4 But Benjamin, Joseph’s brother, Jacob did not send with his brothers, for he feared that harm might come to him.

5 The sons of Israel came to buy among those who came, for the famine was in the land of Canaan.

6 Now Joseph was the governor over the land. He was the one who sold to all the people of the land. Joseph’s brothers came and bowed down to him with their faces to the ground.

7 Joseph saw his brothers and recognized them, but he disguised himself to them and spoke harshly with them. He said to them, “Where have you come from?” They said, “From the land of Canaan to buy food.”

8 Joseph recognized his brothers, but they did not recognize him.

9 Joseph remembered the dreams that he had had about them. He said to them, “You are spies. You came to see the undefended parts of the land.”

10 They said to him, “No, my master. Your servants have come to buy food.

11 We are all one man’s sons. We are honest men. Your servants are not spies.”

12 He said to them, “No, you have come to see the undefended parts of the land.”

13 They said, “We your servants are twelve brothers, the sons of one man in the land of Canaan. See, the youngest is this day with our father, and one brother is no longer alive.”

14 Joseph said to them, “It is what I said to you; you are spies.

15 By this you will be tested. By the life of Pharaoh, you will not leave here, unless your youngest brother comes here.

16 Send one of yourselves and let him get your brother. You will remain in prison, that your words may be tested, whether there is truth in you.

17 He put them all in custody for three days.

18 Joseph said to them on the third day, “Do this and live, for I fear the Almighty.

19 If you are honest men, let one of your brothers be confined in this prison, but you go, carry grain for the famine of your houses.

20 Bring your youngest brother to me so your words will be verified and you will not die.” So they did so.

21 They said to one another, “We are truly guilty concerning our brother in that we saw the distress of his soul when he pleaded with us and we would not listen. Therefore, this distress has come upon us.”

22 Reuben answered them, “Did I not tell you, ‘Do not sin against the boy,’ but you would not listen? Now, see, his blood is required of us.”

23 They did not know that Joseph understood them, for there was an interpreter between them.

24 He turned from them and wept. He returned to them and spoke to them. He took Simeon from among them and bound him before their eyes.

25 Then Joseph commanded his servants to fill his brothers’ bags with grain, and to put every man’s money back into his sack, and to give them provisions for the journey. It was done for them.

26 The brothers loaded their donkeys with their grain and departed from there.

27 As one of them opened his sack to give his donkey feed in the lodging place, he saw his money. Behold, it was in the opening of his sack.

28 He said to his brothers, “My money has been put back. Look at it; it is in my sack.” Their hearts sank and they turned trembling to one another, saying, “What is this that the Almighty has done to us?”

29 They went to Jacob, their father in the land of Canaan and told him all that had happened to them. They said,

30 “The man, the lord of the land, spoke roughly with us and thought that we were spies in the land.

31 We said to him, ’We are honest men. We are not spies.

32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father. One is no longer alive, and the youngest is this day with our father in the land of Canaan.

33 The man, the lord of the land, said to us, ’By this I will know that you are honest men. Leave one of your brothers with me, take grain for the famine in your houses, and go your way.

34 Bring your youngest brother to me. Then I will know that you are not spies, but that you are honest men. Then I will release your brother to you, and you will trade in the land.’”

35 It came about as they emptied their sacks, that, behold, every man’s bag of silver was in his sack. When they and their father saw their bags of silver, they were afraid.

36 Jacob their father said to them, “You have bereaved me of my children. Joseph is no longer alive, Simeon is gone, and you will take Benjamin away. All these things are against me.”

37 Reuben spoke to his father, saying, “You may kill my two sons if I do not bring Benjamin back to you. Put him in my hands, and I will bring him to you again.”

38 Jacob said, “My son will not go down with you. For his brother is dead and he alone is left. If harm comes to him on the road in which you go, then you will bring down my gray hair with sorrow to Sheol.”


Joseph’s Brothers Return to Egypt

THE famine was severe in the land.

2 It came about when they had eaten the grain that they had brought out of Egypt, their father said to them, “Go again; buy us some food.”

3 Judah told him, “The man solemnly warned us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’

4 If you send our brother with us, we will go down and buy you food.

5 But if you do not send him, we will not go down. For the man said to us, ‘You will not see my face unless your brother is with you.’”

6 Israel said, “Why did you treat me so badly by telling the man that you had another brother?”

7 They said, “The man asked details about us and our family. He said, ‘Is your father still alive? Do you have another brother?’ We answered him according to these questions. How could we have known that he would say, ‘Bring your brother down?’”

8 Judah said to Israel his father, “Send the boy with me. We will rise and go that we may live and not die, both we, you, and also our children.

9 I will be a guarantee for him. You will hold me responsible. If I do not bring him back to you and set him before you, then let me bear the blame forever.

10 For if we had not delayed, surely by now we would have come back here a second time.

11 Their father Israel said to them, “If it be so, now do this. Take some of the best products of the land in your bags. Carry down to the man a gift: some balm and honey, spices and myrrh, pistachio nuts and almonds.

12 Take double money in your hand. The money that was returned in the opening of your sacks, carry again in your hand. Perhaps it was a mistake.

13 Take also your brother. Rise and go again to the man.

14 May El Shaddai give you mercy before the man, so that he may release to you your other brother and Benjamin. If I am bereaved of my children, I am bereaved.

15 The men took this gift, and in their hand they took double the amount of money, along with Benjamin. They got up and went down to Egypt and stood before Joseph.

16 When Joseph saw Benjamin with them, he said to the steward of his house, “Bring the men into the house, slaughter an animal and prepare it, for the men will eat with me at noon.”

17 The steward did as Joseph said. He brought the men to Joseph’s house.

18 The men were afraid because they were brought to Joseph’s house. They said, “It is because of the money that was returned in our sacks the first time we were brought in, that he may seek an opportunity against us. He might arrest us and take us as slaves, and take our donkeys.”

19 They approached the steward of Joseph’s house, and they spoke to him at the door of the house,

20 saying, “My master, we came down the first time to buy food.

21 It came about, when we reached the lodging place, that we opened our sacks, and behold, every man’s money was in the opening of his sack, our money in full weight. We have brought it back in our hands.

22 Other money we have also brought down in our hand to buy food. We do not know who put our money in our sacks.

23 The steward said, “Peace be to you, do not fear. Your Almighty and the Almighty of your father must have put your money in your sacks. I received your money.” The steward then brought Simeon out to them.

24 The steward took the men into Joseph’s house. He gave them water, and they washed their feet. He gave feed to their donkeys.

25 They prepared the gifts for Joseph’s coming at noon, for they had heard that they would eat there.

26 When Joseph came home, they brought the gifts which were in their hand into the house, and bowed down before him to the ground.

27 He asked them about their welfare and said, “Is your father well, the old man of whom you spoke? Is he still alive?”

28 They said, “Your servant our father is well. He is still alive.” They prostrated and bowed down.

29 When he lifted up his eyes he saw Benjamin his brother, his mother’s son, and he said, “Is this your youngest brother of whom you spoke to me?” Then he said, “May the Almighty be gracious to you, my son.”

30 Joseph hurried to go out of the room, for he was deeply moved about his brother. He sought somewhere to weep. He went to his room and wept there.

31 He washed his face and came out. He controlled himself, saying, “Serve the food.”

32 The servants served Joseph by himself and the brothers by themselves. The Egyptians there ate with him by themselves because the Egyptians could not eat bread with the Hebrews, for that is detestable to the Egyptians.

33 The brothers sat before him, the firstborn according to his birthright, and the youngest according to his youth. The men were astonished together.

34 Joseph sent portions to them from the food in front of him. But Benjamin’s portion was five times as much as any of his brothers. They drank and were merry with him.


Joseph Tests His Brothers

JOSEPH commanded the steward of his house, saying, “Fill the men’s sacks with food, as much as they can carry, and put every man’s money in his sack’s opening.

2 Put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack’s opening of the youngest, and also his money for the grain.” The steward did as Joseph had said.

3 The morning dawned, and the men were sent away, they and their donkeys.

4 When they were out of the city but were not yet far off, Joseph said to his steward, “Get up, follow after the men, and when you overtake them, say to them, ’Why have you returned evil for good?

5 Is this not the cup from which my master drinks, and the cup that he uses for divination? You have done evil, this thing that you have done.’”

6 The steward overtook them and spoke these words to them.

7 They said to him, “Why does my master speak such words as these? Far be it from your servants that we would do such a thing.

8 Look, the money that we found in our sacks’ openings, we brought again to you out of the land of Canaan. How then could we steal out of your master’s house silver or gold?

9 With whomever of your servants it is found, let him die, and we also will be my master’s slaves.”

10 The steward said, “Now also let it be according to your words. He with whom the cup is found will be my slave, and you others will be innocent.”

11 Then each man hurried and brought his sack down to the ground, and each man opened his sack.

12 The steward searched. He began with the oldest and finished with the youngest, and the cup was found in Benjamin’s sack.

13 Then they tore their clothes. Each man loaded his donkey and returned to the city.

14 Judah and his brothers came to Joseph’s house. He was still there, and they bowed before him to the ground.

15 Joseph said to them, “What is this that you have done? Do you not know that a man like me practices divination?”

16 Judah said, “What can we say to my master? What can we speak? Or how can we justify ourselves? The Almighty has found out the iniquity of your servants. Look, we are my master’s slaves, both we and he also in whose hand the cup was found.”

17 Joseph said, “Far be it from me that I should do so. The man in whose hand the cup was found, that person will be my slave, but as for you others, go up in peace to your father.”

18 Then Judah came near to him and said, “My master, please let your servant speak a word in my master’s ears, and do not let your anger burn against your servant, for you are just like Pharaoh.

19 My master asked his servants, saying, ‘Do you have a father or a brother?’

20 We said to my master, ‘We have a father, an old man, and a child of his old age, a little one. But his brother is dead, and he alone is left of his mother, and his father loves him.’

21 Then you said to your servants, ‘Bring him down to me that I may see him.’

22 After that, we said to my master, ‘The boy cannot leave his father. For if he should leave his father his father would die.’

23 Then you said to your servants, ‘Unless your youngest brother comes down with you, you will not see my face again.’

24 Then it came about when we went up to your servant my father, we told him the words of my master.

25 Our father said, ‘Go again, buy us some food.’

26 Then we said, ‘We cannot go down. If our youngest brother is with us, then will we go down, for we will not be able to see the man’s face unless our youngest brother is with us.’

27 Your servant my father said to us, ’You know that my wife bore me two sons.

28 One of them went out from me and I said, “Surely he is torn in pieces, and I have not seen him since.”

29 Now if you also take this one from me, and harm comes to him, you will bring down my gray hair with sorrow to Sheol.

30 Now, therefore, when I come to your servant my father, and the lad is not with us, since his life is bound up in the boy’s life,

31 it will come about, when he sees the boy is not with us, he will die. Your servants will bring down the gray hair of your servant our father with sorrow to Sheol.

32 For your servant became a guarantee for the boy to my father and said, ‘If I do not bring him to you, then I will bear the guilt to my father forever.’

33 Now therefore, please let your servant stay instead of the boy as slave to my master, and let the boy go up with his brothers.

34 For how can I go up to my father if the boy is not with me? I am afraid to see the evil that would come on my father.


Joseph Provides for His Brothers and Family

THEN Joseph could not control himself before all the servants who stood by him. He said loudly, “Everyone must leave me.” So no servant stood by him when Joseph made himself known to his brothers.

2 He wept loudly, the Egyptians heard it, and the house of Pharaoh heard of it.

3 Joseph said to his brothers, “I am Joseph. Is my father still alive?” His brothers could not answer him, for they were shocked in his presence.

4 Then Joseph said to his brothers, “Come near to me, please.” They came near. He said, “I am Joseph your brother, whom you sold into Egypt.

5 Do not be grieved or angry with yourselves that you sold me here, for the Almighty sent me ahead of you to preserve life.

6 For these two years the famine has been in the land, and there are still five years in which there will be neither plowing nor harvest.

7 The Almighty sent me ahead of you to preserve you as a remnant in the earth, and to keep you alive by a great deliverance.

8 So now it was not you who sent me here but the Almighty, and he has made me a father to Pharaoh, master of all his house, and ruler of all the land of Egypt.

9 Hurry and go up to my father and say to him, ’This is what your son Joseph says, “The Almighty has made me master of all Egypt. Come down to me, do not delay.

10 You will live in the land of Goshen, and you will be near me, you and your children and your children’s children, and your flocks and your herds, and all that you have.

11 I will provide for you there, for there are still five years of famine, so that you do not come to poverty, you, your household, and all that you have.”’

12 Look, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my mouth that speaks to you.

13 You will tell my father about all my honor in Egypt and of all that you have seen. You will hurry and bring my father down here.

14 He hugged his brother Benjamin’s neck and wept, and Benjamin wept on his neck.

15 He kissed all his brothers and wept over them. After that his brothers talked with him.

16 The news of the matter was told in Pharaoh’s house: “Joseph’s brothers have come.” It pleased Pharaoh and his servants very much.

17 Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Say to your brothers, ’Do this: Load your animals and go to the land of Canaan.

18 Get your father and your households and come to me. I will give you the good of the land of Egypt, and you will eat the fat of the land.

19 Now you are commanded, ’Do this, take carts out of the land of Egypt for your children and for your wives. Get your father and come.

20 Do not be concerned about your possessions, for the good of all the land of Egypt is yours.’”

21 The sons of Israel did so. Joseph gave them carts, according to the command of Pharaoh, and gave them provisions for the journey.

22 To all of them he gave each man changes of clothing, but to Benjamin he gave three hundred pieces of silver and five changes of clothing.

23 For his father he sent this: ten donkeys loaded with the good things of Egypt; and ten female donkeys loaded with grain, bread, and other supplies for his father for the journey.

24 So he sent his brothers away and they left. He said to them, “See that you do not quarrel on the journey.”

25 They went up out of Egypt and came to the land of Canaan, to Jacob their father.

26 They told him saying “Joseph is still alive, and he is ruler over all the land of Egypt.” His heart was astonished, for he could not believe what they told him.

27 They told him all the words of Joseph that he had said to them. When Jacob saw the carts that Joseph had sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their father revived.

28 Israel said, “It is enough. Joseph my son is still alive. I will go and see him before I die.”


Joseph Brings His Family to Egypt

ISRAEL made his journey with all that he had and went to Beersheba. There he offered sacrifices to the Almighty of his father Isaac.

2 The Almighty spoke to Israel in a vision at night, saying, “Jacob, Jacob.” He said, “Here I am.”

3 He said, “I am the Almighty, the Almighty of your father. Do not fear to go down to Egypt, for there I will make you a great ethno-linguistic nation.

4 I will go down with you into Egypt, and I will surely bring you up again and Joseph will close your eyes with his own hand.

5 Jacob rose up from Beersheba. The sons of Israel transported Jacob their father, their children, and their wives, in the carts that Pharaoh had sent to carry him.

6 They took their livestock and their possessions that they had accumulated in the land of Canaan. They came into Egypt, Jacob and all his descendants with him.

7 He brought with him to Egypt his sons and his sons’ sons, his daughters and his sons’ daughters, and all his descendants.

8 These were the names of the children of Israel who came to Egypt, Jacob and his sons: Reuben, Jacob’s firstborn;

9 the sons of Reuben Hanoch and Pallu and Hezron and Carmi;

10 the sons of Simeon, Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman;

11 the sons of Levi Gershon, Kohath, and Merari.

12 The sons of Judah: Er, Onan, Shelah, Perez, and Zerah, but Er and Onan had died in the land of Canaan. The sons of Perez were Hezron and Hamul.

13 The sons of Issachar were Tola, Puvah, Lob, and Shimron;

14 The sons of Zebulun were Sered, Elon, and Jahleel

15 These were the sons of Leah whom she bore to Jacob in Paddan Aram, along with his daughter Dinah. His sons and his daughters numbered thirty-three.

16 The sons of Gad were Ziphion, Haggi, Shuni, Ezbon, Er, Arodi, and Areli.

17 The sons of Asher were Imnah, Ishvah, Ishvi, and Beriah; and Serah was their sister. The sons of Beriah were Heber and Malchiel

18 These were the sons of Zilpah, whom Laban had given to Leah his daughter. These sons she bore to Jacob, sixteen in all.

19 The sons of Jacob’s wife Rachel were Joseph and Benjamin.

20 In Egypt Manasseh and Ephraim were born to Joseph by Asenath, the daughter of Potiphera priest of On.

21 The sons of Benjamin were Bela, Becher, Ashbel, Gera, Naaman, Ehi, Rosh, Muppim, Huppim, and Ard.

22 These were the sons of Rachel who were born to Jacob, fourteen in all.

23 The son of Dan was Hushim.

24 The sons of Naphtali were Jahzeel, Guni, Jezer, and Shillem.

25 These were the sons born to Jacob by Bilhah, whom Laban gave to Rachel his daughter, seven in all.

26 All those who went to Egypt with Jacob, who were his descendants, not counting Jacob’s sons’ wives, were sixty-six in all.

27 With the two sons of Joseph who were born to him in Egypt, the members of his family who went to Egypt were seventy in all.

Jacob and Joseph Reunited

28 Jacob sent Judah ahead of him to Joseph to show the way before him to Goshen, and they came to the land of Goshen.

29 Joseph prepared his chariot and went up to meet Israel his father in Goshen. He saw him, hugged his neck, and wept on his neck a long time.

30 Israel said to Joseph, “Now let me die, since I have seen your face, that you are still alive.”

31 Joseph said to his brothers and to his father’s house, “I will go up and tell Pharaoh, saying, ’My brothers and my father’s house, who were in the land of Canaan, have come to me.

32 The men are shepherds, for they have been keepers of livestock. They have brought their flocks, their herds, and all that they have.

33 It will come about, when Pharaoh calls you and asks, ‘What is your occupation?’

34 that you should say, ‘Your servants have been keepers of livestock from our youth until now, both we, and our forefathers.’ Do this so that you may live in the land of Goshen, for every shepherd is an abomination to the Egyptians.”


Jacob’s Family Settles in Goshen

THEN Joseph went in and told Pharaoh, “My father and my brothers, their flocks, their herds, and all that they own, have arrived from the land of Canaan. See, they are in the land of Goshen.”

2 He took five of his brothers and introduced them to Pharaoh.

3 Pharaoh said to his brothers, “What is your occupation?” They said to Pharaoh, “Your servants are shepherds, as our ancestors.”

4 Then they said to Pharaoh, “We come as temporary residents in the land. There is no pasture for your servants’ flocks, because the famine is severe in the land of Canaan. So now, please let your servants live in the land of Goshen.”

5 Then Pharaoh spoke to Joseph, saying, “Your father and your brothers have come to you.

6 The land of Egypt is before you. Settle your father and your brothers in the best region, the land of Goshen. If you know any capable men among them, put them in charge of my livestock.

7 Then Joseph brought in Jacob his father and presented him to Pharaoh. Jacob blessed Pharaoh.

8 Pharaoh said to Jacob, “How long have you lived?”

9 Jacob said to Pharaoh, “The years of my travels are a hundred and thirty. The years of my life have been few and painful. They have not been as long as those of my ancestors.”

10 Then Jacob blessed Pharaoh and went out from his presence.

11 Then Joseph settled his father and his brothers. He gave them a territory in the land of Egypt, the best of the land, in the land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded.

12 Joseph provided food for his father, his brothers, and all his father’s household, according to the number of their dependents.

Joseph and the Famine

13 Now there was no food in all the land; for the famine was severe. The land of Egypt and the land of Canaan wasted away because of the famine.

14 Joseph gathered all the money that was in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan, by selling grain to the inhabitants. Then Joseph brought the money to Pharaoh’s palace.

15 When all the money of the lands of Egypt and Canaan was spent, all the Egyptians came to Joseph saying, “Give us food! Why should we die in your presence because our money is gone?”

16 Joseph said, “If your money is gone, bring your livestock and I will give you food in exchange for your livestock.”

17 So they brought their livestock to Joseph. Joseph gave them food in exchange for the horses, for the flocks, for the herds, and for the donkeys. He fed them with bread in exchange for all their livestock that year.

18 When that year was ended, they came to him the next year and said to him, “We will not hide from my master that our money is all gone, and the herds of cattle are my master’s. There is nothing left in the sight of my master, except our bodies and our land.

19 Why should we die before your eyes, both we and our land? Buy us and our land in exchange for food, and we and our land will be servants to Pharaoh. Give us seed that we may live and not die, and that the land may not become desolate.

20 So Joseph bought all the land of Egypt for Pharaoh. For every Egyptian sold his field, because the famine was very severe. In this way, the land became Pharaoh’s.

21 As for the people, he made them slaves from one end of Egypt’s border to the other end.

22 It was only the land of the priests that Joseph did not buy, because the priests were given an allowance. They ate from the allotment which Pharaoh gave them. Therefore, they did not sell their land.

23 Then Joseph said to the people, “See, I have bought you and your land today for Pharaoh. Now here is seed for you, and you will plant the land.

24 At the harvest, you must give a fifth to Pharaoh, and four parts will be your own, for seed of the field and for food for your households and your children.

25 They said, “You have saved our lives. May we find favor in your eyes. We will be Pharaoh’s servants.”

26 So Joseph made it a statute which is in effect in the land of Egypt to this day, that one-fifth belongs to Pharaoh. Only the land of the priests did not become Pharaoh’s.

27 So Israel lived in the land of Egypt, in the land of Goshen. His people gained possessions there. They were fruitful and multiplied greatly.

28 Jacob lived in the land of Egypt seventeen years, so the years of Jacob’s life were one hundred forty-seven years.

29 When the time approached for Israel to die, he called his son Joseph and said to him, “If now I have found favor in your sight, put your hand under my thigh, and show me faithfulness and trustworthiness. Please do not bury me in Egypt.

30 When I sleep with my fathers, you will carry me out of Egypt and bury me in my forefathers’ burial place.” Joseph said, “I will do as you have said.”

31 Israel said, “Swear to me,” and Joseph swore to him. Then Israel bowed down at the head of his bed.


Jacob Blesses Ephraim and Manasseh

IT came about after these things, that one said to Joseph, “Look, your father is sick.” So he took with him his two sons, Manasseh and Ephraim.

2 When Jacob was told, “Look, your son Joseph has arrived to see you,” Israel gathered strength and sat up in bed.

3 Jacob said to Joseph, “El Shaddai appeared to me at Luz in the land of Canaan. He blessed me

4 and said to me, ‘Behold, I will make you fruitful, and multiply you. I will make of you an assembly of ethno-linguistic nations. I will give this land to your descendants as an everlasting possession.’

5 Now your two sons, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you into Egypt, they are mine. Ephraim and Manasseh will be mine, just as Reuben and Simeon are mine.

6 The children you have after them will be yours; they will be listed under the names of their brothers in their inheritance.

7 But as for me, when I came from Paddan, to my sorrow Rachel died in the land of Canaan on the way, while there was still some distance to go to Ephrath. I buried her there on the way to Ephrath”, that is, Bethlehem.

8 When Israel saw Joseph’s sons, he said, “Whose are these?”

9 Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom the Almighty has given me here.” Israel said, “Bring them to me, that I may bless them.”

10 Now Israel’s eyes were failing because of his age, so he could not see. So Joseph brought them near to him, and he kissed them and embraced them.

11 Israel said to Joseph, “I never expected to see your face again, but the Almighty has even allowed me to see your children.”

12 Joseph brought them out from between Israel’s knees, and then he bowed with his face to the earth.

13 Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand toward Israel’s left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right hand, and brought them close to him.

14 Israel reached out with his right hand and laid it upon Ephraim’s head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh’s head. He crossed his hands, for Manasseh was the firstborn.

15 Israel blessed Joseph, saying, “The Almighty before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, the Almighty who has cared for me to this day,

16 the angel who has protected me from all harm, may he bless these boys. May my name be named in them, and the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac. May they grow into a multitude on the earth.

17 When Joseph saw his father place his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him. He took his father’s hand to move it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head.

18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so, my father; for this is the firstborn. Put your right hand upon his head.”

19 His father refused and said, “I know, my son, I know. He also will become an people, and he also will be great. Yet his younger brother will be greater than he, and his descendants will become a multitude of ethno-linguistic nations.”

20 Israel blessed them that day with these words, “The people of Israel will pronounce blessings by your names saying, ‘May the Almighty make you like Ephraim and like Manasseh’.” In this way, Israel put Ephraim before Manasseh.

21 Israel said to Joseph, “See, I am about to die, but the Almighty will be with you, and will bring you back to the land of your fathers.

22 To you, as one who is above your brothers, I give to you the mountain slope that I took from the Amorites with my sword and my bow.


Jacob Blesses His Sons

THEN Jacob called for his sons, and said: “Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you what will happen to you in the future.

2 Assemble yourselves and listen, you sons of Jacob. Listen to Israel, your father.

3 Reuben, you are my firstborn, my might, and the beginning of my strength, outstanding in dignity, and outstanding in power.

4 Uncontrollable as rushing water, you will not have the preeminence, because you went up to your father’s bed. Then you defiled it; you went up to my couch.

5 Simeon and Levi are brothers. Weapons of violence are their swords.

6 O my soul, do not come into their council; do not join in their meetings, for my heart has too much honor for that. For in their anger they killed men. It was for pleasure that they hamstrung oxen.

7 May their anger be cursed, for it was fierce, and their fury, for it was cruel. I will divide them in Jacob and scatter them in Israel.

8 Judah, your brothers will praise you. Your hand will be on the neck of your enemies. Your father’s sons will bow down before you.

9 Judah is a lion’s cub. My son, you have gone up from your victims. He stooped down, he crouched like a lion, like a lioness. Who would dare to awaken him?

10 The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler’s staff from between his feet, until Shiloh (Messiah) comes. The ethno-linguistic nations will obey him.

11 Binding his donkey to the vine, and his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, he has washed his garments in wine, and his robe in the blood of grapes.

12 His eyes will be as dark as wine, and his teeth as white as milk.

13 Zebulun will live by the shore of the sea. He will be a harbor for ships, and his border will extend to Sidon.

14 Issachar is a strong donkey, lying down between the sheepfolds.

15 He sees a good resting place and the pleasant land. He will bend his shoulder to the burden and become a servant for the task.

16 Dan will judge his people as one of the tribes of Israel.

17 Dan will be a snake beside the road, a poisonous snake in the path that bites the horse’s heels, so that his rider falls backward.

18 I wait for your salvation (Y’shua), Yehovah.

19 Gad, raiders will attack him, but he will attack them at their heels.

20 Asher’s food will be rich, and he will provide royal delicacies.

21 Naphtali is a doe let loose; he will have beautiful fawns.

22 Joseph is a fruitful bough, a fruitful bough near a spring, whose branches climb over the wall.

23 The archers will attack him and shoot at him and harass him.

24 But his bow will remain steady, and his hands will be skillful because of the hands of the Mighty One of Jacob, because of the name of the Shepherd, the Rock of Israel.

25 The Almighty of your father will help you and the Almighty Divine One will bless you with blessings of the sky above, blessings of the deep that lies beneath, and blessings of the breasts and womb.

26 The blessings of your father are greater than the blessings of the ancient mountains or the desireable things of the ancient hills. May they be on the head of Joseph, even upon the crown of the head of the prince of his brothers.

27 Benjamin is a hungry wolf. In the morning he will devour the prey, and in the evening he will divide the plunder.

Jacob’s Death and Burial

28 These are the twelve tribes of Israel. This is what their father said to them when he blessed them. Each one he blessed with an appropriate blessing.

29 Then he instructed them and said to them, “I am about to go to my people. Bury me with my forefathers in the cave that is in the field of Ephron the Hethite,

30 in the cave that is in the field of Machpelah, which is near Mamre in the land of Canaan, the field that Abraham bought for a burial place from Ephron the Hethite.

31 There they buried Abraham and Sarah his wife; there they buried Isaac and Rebekah his wife; and there I buried Leah.

32 The field and the cave that is in it were purchased from the people of Heth.

33 When Jacob finished these instructions to his sons, he pulled his feet into the bed, breathed his last, and went to his people.


THEN Joseph was so distressed that he collapsed on the face of his father, and he wept over him, and he kissed him.

2 Joseph commanded his servants the physicians to embalm his father. So the physicians embalmed Israel.

3 They took forty days, for that was the full time for embalming. The Egyptians wept for him seventy days.

4 When the days of weeping were over, Joseph spoke to Pharaoh’s royal court saying, “If now I have found favor in your eyes, please speak to Pharaoh, saying,

5 ‘My father made me swear, saying, “See, I am about to die. Bury me in my tomb that I dug for myself in the land of Canaan. There you will bury me.” Now let me go up and bury my father, and then I will return.’”

6 Pharaoh answered, “Go and bury your father, as he made you swear.”

7 Joseph went up to bury his father. All the officials of Pharaoh went with him, the courtiers of his household, all the senior officials of the land of Egypt,

8 with all Joseph’s household and his brothers, and his father’s household. But their children, their flocks, and their herds were left in the land of Goshen.

9 Chariots and horsemen also went with him. It was a very large group of people.

10 When they came to the threshing floor of Atad on the other side of the Jordan, they mourned with very great and grievous sorrow. There Joseph made a seven day mourning for his father.

11 When the inhabitants of the land, the Canaanites, saw the mourning in the floor of Atad, they said, “This is a very sad occasion for the Egyptians.” That is why the place was called Abel Mizraim, which is beyond the Jordan.

12 So his sons did for Jacob just as he had instructed them.

13 His sons carried him to the land of Canaan and buried him in the cave in the field of Machpelah, near Mamre. Abraham had bought the cave with the field for a burial place. He had bought it from Ephron the Hethite.

14 After he had buried his father, Joseph returned into Egypt, he, along with his brothers, and all who had accompanied him to bury his father.

Yehovah’s Good Purposes

15 When Joseph’s brothers saw that their father was dead, they said, “What if Joseph holds on to anger against us and wants to repay us in full for all the evil we did to him?”

16 So they commanded the presence of Joseph, saying, “Your father gave instructions before he died, saying,

17 ‘Tell Joseph this, “Please forgive the transgression of your brothers and their sin when they did evil to you.”’ Now please forgive the servants of the Almighty of your father.” Joseph wept when they spoke to him.

18 His brothers also went and lay facedown before him. They said, “See, we are your servants.”

19 But Joseph answered them, “Do not be afraid. Am I in the place of the Almighty?

20 As for you, you meant to harm me, but the Almighty meant it for good, to preserve the lives of many people, as you see today.

21 So now do not be afraid. I will provide for you and your little children.” He comforted them in this way and spoke kindly to their hearts.

The Death of Joseph

22 Joseph lived in Egypt, together with his father’s family. He lived one hundred ten years.

23 Joseph saw Ephraim’s children to the third generation. He also saw the children of Machir son of Manasseh, who were placed on the knees of Joseph.

24 Joseph said to his brothers, “I am about to die; but the Almighty will surely come to you and lead you up out of this land to the land which he swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.”

25 Then Joseph made the people of Israel swear an oath. He said, “The Almighty will surely come to you. At that time you must carry up my bones from here.”

26 So Joseph died, 110 years old. They embalmed him and he was placed in a coffin in Egypt.

The Second Book of Moses Called



Israel Increases Greatly in Egypt

THESE are the names of the sons of Israel who came into Egypt with Jacob, each with his household:

2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah,

3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin,

4 Dan, Naphtali, Gad, and Asher.

5 All the people who were descendants of Jacob were seventy in number. Joseph was already in Egypt.

6 Then Joseph, all his brothers, and all that generation died.

7 The Israelites were fruitful, increased greatly in numbers, and became very strong; the land was filled with them.

Pharaoh Oppresses Israel

8 Now then a new king arose over Egypt, one who did not know about Joseph.

9 He said to his people, “Look, the Israelites are more numerous and stronger than we are.

10 Come, let us deal with them wisely, otherwise they will continue to grow in numbers, and if war breaks out, they will join our enemies, fight against us, and leave the land.

11 So they put taskmasters over them to oppress them with hard labor. The Israelites built store cities for Pharaoh: Pithom and Rameses.

12 But the more the Egyptians oppressed them, the more the Israelites increased in numbers and spread. So the Egyptians began to dread the Israelites.

13 The Egyptians made the Israelites work rigorously.

14 They made their lives bitter with hard service with mortar and brick, and with all kinds of work in the fields. All their required work was hard.

15 Then the king of Egypt spoke to the Hebrew midwives; the name of the one was Shiphrah, and the other Puah.

16 He said, “When you assist the Hebrew women on the birthstool, observe when they give birth. If it is a son, then you must kill him; but if it is a daughter, then she may live.”

17 But the midwives feared the Almighty and did not do as the king of Egypt ordered them; instead, they let the baby boys live.

18 The king of Egypt summoned the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this, and let the baby boys live?”

19 The midwives answered Pharaoh, “The Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women. They are vigorous and have finished giving birth before a midwife comes to them.”

20 The Almighty protected these midwives. The people increased in numbers and became very strong.

21 Because the midwives feared the Almighty, he gave them families.

22 Pharaoh ordered all his people, “You must throw every son that is born into the river, but every daughter you will let live.”


The Birth of Moses

NOW a man of the tribe of Levi married a woman of Levi.

2 The woman became pregnant and gave birth to a son. When she saw that he was a healthy boy, she hid him for three months.

3 But when she could no longer hide him, she took a papyrus basket and sealed it with bitumen and pitch. Then she put the child in it and placed it among the reeds in the water along the side of the river.

4 His sister stood at a distance to see what would happen to him.

5 Pharaoh’s daughter came down to bathe at the river while her attendants walked along by the riverside. She saw the basket among the reeds and sent her attendant to get it.

6 When she opened it, she saw the child. Behold, the baby was crying. She had compassion on him and said, “This is certainly one of the Hebrews’ children.”

7 Then the baby’s sister said to Pharaoh’s daughter, “Should I go and find you a Hebrew woman to nurse the child for you?”

8 Pharaoh’s daughter said to her, “Go.” So the young girl went and got the child’s mother.

9 Pharaoh’s daughter said to the baby’s mother, “Take this child and nurse him for me, and I will pay you wages.” So the woman took the child and nursed him.

10 When the child grew older, she brought him to Pharaoh’s daughter, and he became her son. She named him Moses and said, “Because I drew him from the water.”

Moses Flees to Midian

11 When Moses had grown up, he went out to his people and observed their hard work. He saw an Egyptian striking a Hebrew, one of his own people.

12 He looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no one there, he killed the Egyptian and hid his body in the sand.

13 He went out the next day, and behold, two Hebrew men were fighting. He said to the one who was in the wrong, “Why are you hitting your companion?”

14 But the man said, “Who made you a leader and judge over us? Are you planning to murder me as you killed that Egyptian?” Then Moses became afraid and said, “What I did has certainly become known to others.”

15 Now when Pharaoh heard about it, he tried to kill Moses. But Moses fled from Pharaoh and stayed in the land of Midian. There he sat down by a well.

16 Now the priest of Midian had seven daughters. They came, drew water, and filled the troughs to water their father’s flock.

17 The shepherds came and tried to drive them away, but Moses went and helped them. Then he watered their flock.

18 When the girls went to Reuel (Jethro) their father, he said, “Why are you home so early today?”

19 They said, “An Egyptian rescued us from the shepherds. He even drew water for us and watered the flock.”

20 He said to his daughters, “So where is he? Why did you leave the man? Call him so he can eat a meal with us.”

21 Moses agreed to stay with the man, who also gave him his daughter Zipporah in marriage.

22 She bore a son, and Moses called his name Gershom; he said, “I have been a resident in a foreign land.”

Yehovah Hears Israel’s Groaning

23 A long time later, the king of Egypt died. The Israelites groaned because of the slave labor. They cried out for help, and their pleas went up to the Almighty because of their bondage.

24 When the Almighty heard their groaning, the Almighty called to mind his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob.

25 The Almighty saw the Israelites, and he understood their situation.


The Burning Bush

NOW Moses was still shepherding the flock of Jethro his father-in-law, the priest of Midian. Moses led the flock to the far side of the wilderness and arrived at Horeb (Mt. Sinai), the mountain of the Almighty.

2 There the angel of Yehovah appeared to him in a flame of fire in a bush. Moses looked, and behold, the bush was burning, but the bush was not burned up.

3 Moses said, “I will turn aside and see this amazing thing, why the bush is not burned up.”

4 When Yehovah saw that he had turned aside to look, the Almighty called to him out of the bush and said, “Moses, Moses.” Moses said, “Here I am.”

5 The Almighty said, “Do not come any closer! Take off your shoes from your feet, for the place where you are standing is ground that is set apart to me.”

6 He added, “I am the Almighty of your father, the Almighty of Abraham, the Almighty of Isaac, and the Almighty of Jacob.” Then Moses covered his face, for he was afraid to look at the Almighty.

7 Yehovah said, “I have certainly seen the suffering of my people who are in Egypt. I have heard their shouts because of their taskmasters, for I know about their suffering.

8 I have come down to free them from the Egyptians’ power and to bring them up from that land to a good, large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the region of the Canaanites, Hethites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites.

9 Now the shouts of the people of Israel have come to me. Moreover, I have seen the oppression caused by the Egyptians.

10 Now then, I will send you to Pharaoh so that you may bring my people, the Israelites, out of Egypt.

11 But Moses said to the Almighty, “Who am I, that I should go to Pharaoh and bring the Israelites from Egypt?”

12 The Almighty replied, “I will certainly be with you. This will be a sign to you that I have sent you. When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will worship me on this mountain.”

13 Moses said to the Almighty, “When I go to the Israelites and tell them, ‘The Almighty of your ancestors has sent me to you,’ and when they say to me, ‘What is his name?’ what should I say to them?”

14 The Almighty said to Moses, EHYAH ASHER EHYAH (I WILL BE WHO I WILL BE).” The Almighty said, “You must say to the Israelites, ‘EHYAH (I WILL BE) has sent me to you.’”

15 The Almighty also said to Moses, “You must say to the Israelites, ‘Yehovah, the Almighty of your ancestors, the Almighty of Abraham, the Almighty of Isaac, and the Almighty of Jacob, has sent me to you. This is my name forever, and this is how I will be kept in mind for all generations.’

16 Go and gather the elders of Israel together. Say to them, ’Yehovah, the Almighty of your ancestors, the Almighty of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob, has appeared to me and said, “I have indeed observed you and have seen what has been done to you in Egypt.

17 I have promised to bring you up from the oppression in Egypt to the land of the Canaanites, Hethites, Amorites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey.”’

18 They will listen to you. You and the elders of Israel must go to the king of Egypt, and you must tell him, ‘Yehovah, the Almighty of the Hebrews, has met with us. So now let us go three days’ journey into the wilderness, in order that we may sacrifice to Yehovah, our Almighty.’

19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go, unless his hand is forced.

20 I will reach out with my hand and attack the Egyptians with all the miracles that I will do among them. After that, he will let you go.

21 I will grant this people favor from the Egyptians, so when you leave, you will not go empty-handed.

22 Every woman will ask for silver and gold jewels and for clothing from her Egyptian neighbors and any women staying in her neighbors’ houses. You will put them on your sons and daughters. In this way you will plunder the Egyptians.”


Moses Given Powerful Signs

MOSES answered, “But what if they do not believe me or listen to me but say instead, ‘Yehovah has not appeared to you’?”

2 Yehovah said to him, “What is that in your hand?” Moses said, “A staff.”

3 Yehovah said, “Throw it on the ground.” Moses threw it on the ground, and it became a snake. Moses ran back from it.

4 Yehovah said to Moses, “Reach out and take it by the tail.” So he reached out and took hold of the snake. It became a staff in his hand again.

5 “This is so they may believe that Yehovah, the Almighty of their ancestors, the Almighty of Abraham, the Almighty of Isaac, and the Almighty of Jacob, has appeared to you.”

6 Yehovah also said to him, “Now put your hand inside your robe.” So Moses put his hand inside his robe. When he brought it out, behold, his hand was leprous, as white as snow.

7 Yehovah said, “Put your hand inside your robe again.” So Moses put his hand inside his robe, and when he brought it out, he saw that it was made healthy again, like the rest of his flesh.

8 Yehovah said, “If they do not believe you, if they do not pay attention to the first sign of my power or believe in it, then they will believe the second sign.

9 If they do not believe even these two signs of my power, or listen to you, then take some water from the river and pour it on the dry land. The water that you take will become blood on the dry land.

10 Then Moses said to Yehovah, “Lord, I have never been eloquent, neither in the past nor since you spoke to your servant. I am slow of speech and slow of tongue.”

11 Yehovah said to him, “Who is it who made man’s mouth? Who makes a man mute or deaf or seeing or blind? Is it not I, Yehovah?

12 So now go, and I will be with your mouth and teach you what to say.

13 But Moses said, “Lord, please send anyone else, anyone whom you wish to send.”

14 Then Yehovah became angry with Moses. He said, “What about Aaron, your brother, the Levite? I know that he can speak well. Moreover, he is coming to meet you, and when he sees you, he will be glad in his heart.

15 You will speak to him and put the words to say into his mouth. I will be with your mouth and with his mouth, and I will show you both what to do.

16 He will speak to the people for you. He will be your mouth, and you will be to him like me, the Almighty.

17 You will take in your hand this staff. With it you will do the signs.

Moses Returns to Egypt

18 So Moses went back to Jethro his father-in-law and said to him, “Let me go so I may return to my relatives who are in Egypt and see if they are still alive.” Jethro said to Moses, “Go in peace.”

19 Yehovah said to Moses in Midian, “Go, return to Egypt, for all the men who were trying to take your life are dead.”

20 Moses took his wife and his sons and put them on a donkey. He returned to the land of Egypt, and he took the staff of the Almighty in his hand.

21 Yehovah said to Moses, “When you go back to Egypt, see that you do before Pharaoh all the wonders that I have put in your power. But I will harden his heart, and he will not let the people go.

22 You must say to Pharaoh, ’This is what Yehovah says: Israel is my son, my firstborn,

23 and I say to you, “Let my son go, so he may worship me.” But since you have refused to let him go, I will certainly kill your son, your firstborn.’”

24 Now on the way, when they stopped for the night, Yehovah met Moses and tried to kill him.

25 Then Zipporah took a flint knife and cut off the foreskin of her son, and touched it to his feet. Then she said, “Surely you are a bridegroom to me by blood.”

26 So Yehovah let him alone. She said, “You are a bridegroom of blood” because of the circumcision.

27 Yehovah said to Aaron, “Go into the wilderness to meet Moses.” Aaron went, met him at the mountain of the Almighty, and kissed him.

28 Moses told Aaron all the words of Yehovah that he had sent him to say and about all the signs of Yehovah’s power that he had commanded him to do.

29 Then Moses and Aaron went and gathered together all the elders of the Israelites.

30 Aaron spoke all the words that Yehovah had spoken to Moses. He also displayed the signs of Yehovah’s power in the sight of the people.

31 The people believed. When they heard that Yehovah had observed the Israelites and that he had seen their oppression, then they bowed their heads and worshiped him.


Making Bricks Without Straw

AFTER these things happened, Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said, “This is what Yehovah, the Almighty of Israel, says: ‘Let my people go, so they can have a festival for me in the wilderness.’”

2 Pharaoh said, “Who is Yehovah? Why should I listen to his voice and let Israel go? I do not know Yehovah; moreover, I will not let Israel go.”

3 They said, “The Almighty of the Hebrews has met with us. Let us go on a three-day journey into the wilderness and sacrifice to Yehovah our Almighty so that he does not attack us with plague or with the sword.”

4 But the king of Egypt said to them, “Moses and Aaron, why are you taking the people from their work? Go back to your work.”

5 He also said, “There are now many Hebrew people in our land, and you are making them stop their work.”

6 On that same day, Pharaoh gave a command to the people’s taskmasters and foremen. He said,

7 “Unlike before, you must no longer give the people straw to make bricks. Let them go and gather straw for themselves.

8 However, you must still demand from them the same number of bricks as they made before. Do not accept any fewer, because they are lazy. That is why they are calling out and saying, ‘Allow us to go and sacrifice to our Almighty.’

9 Increase the workload for the men so that they keep at it and pay no more attention to deceptive words.

10 So the people’s taskmasters and foremen went out and informed the people. They said, “This is what Pharaoh says: ’I will no longer give you any straw.

11 You yourselves must go and get straw wherever you can find it, but your workload will not be reduced.’”

12 So the people scattered throughout all the land of Egypt to gather stubble for straw.

13 The taskmasters kept urging them and saying, “Finish your work, just as when straw was given to you.”

14 Pharaoh’s taskmasters beat the Israelite foremen, those same men whom they had put in charge of the workers. The taskmasters kept asking them, “Why have you not produced all the bricks required of you, either yesterday and today, as you used to do in the past?”

15 So the Israelite foremen came to Pharaoh and cried out to him. They said, “Why are you treating your servants this way?

16 No straw is being given to your servants anymore, but they are still telling us, ‘Make bricks!’ We, your servants, are even beaten now, but it is the fault of your own people.”

17 But Pharaoh said, “You are lazy! You are lazy! You say, ‘Allow us to go sacrifice to Yehovah.’

18 So now go back to work. No more straw will be given to you, but you must still make the same number of bricks.

19 The Israelite foremen saw that they were in trouble when they were told, “You must not reduce the daily number of bricks.”

20 They met Moses and Aaron, who were standing outside the palace, as they went away from Pharaoh.

21 They said to Moses and Aaron, “May Yehovah look at you and punish you, because you have made us offensive in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants. You have put a sword in their hand to kill us.”

22 Moses went back to Yehovah and said, “Lord, why have you caused trouble for this people? Why did you send me in the first place?

23 Ever since I came to Pharaoh to speak to him in your name, he has caused trouble for this people, and you have not set your people free at all.


Yehovah Promises Deliverance

THEN Yehovah said to Moses, “Now you will see what I will do to Pharaoh. You will see this, for he will let them go because of my strong hand. Because of my strong hand, he will drive them out of his land.”

2 The Almighty spoke to Moses and said to him, “I am Yehovah.

3 I appeared to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob as El Shaddai; but by my name, Yehovah, I was not known to them.

4 I also established my covenant with them, in order to give them the land of Canaan, the land where they lived as non-citizens, the land in which they wandered about.

5 Moreover, I have heard the groaning of the Israelites whom the Egyptians have enslaved, and I have called to mind my covenant.

6 Therefore, say to the Israelites, ’I am Yehovah. I will bring you out from slavery under the Egyptians, and I will free you from their power. I will rescue you with a display of my power, and with mighty acts of judgment.

7 I will take you to myself as my people, and I will be your Almighty. You will know that I am Yehovah your Almighty, who brought you out from slavery under the Egyptians.

8 I will bring you into the land that I swore to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob. I will give it to you as a possession. I am Yehovah.’”

9 When Moses told this to the Israelites, they would not listen to him because of their discouragement about their harsh slavery.

10 So Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

11 “Go tell Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to let the people of Israel go from his land.”

12 Moses said to Yehovah, “If the Israelites have not listened to me, why will Pharaoh listen to me, since I am not good at speaking?”

13 Yehovah spoke to Moses and to Aaron. He gave them a command for the Israelites and for Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to bring the Israelites out of the land of Egypt.

The Genealogy of Moses and Aaron

14 These were the heads of their fathers’ houses: the sons of Reuben, the firstborn of Israel, were Hanoch, Pallu, Hezron, and Carmi. These were the clan ancestors of Reuben.

15 The sons of Simeon were Jemuel, Jamin, Ohad, Jachin, Zohar, and Shaul, the son of a Canaanite woman. These were the clan ancestors of Simeon.

16 Here are listed the names of the sons of Levi, together with their descendants. They were Gershon, Kohath, and Merari. Levi lived until he was 137 years old.

17 The sons of Gershon were Libni and Shimei.

18 The sons of Kohath were Amram, Izhar, Hebron, and Uzziel. Kohath lived until he was 133 years old.

19 The sons of Merari were Mahli and Mushi. These became the clan ancestors of the Levites, together with their descendants.

20 Amram married Jochebed, his father’s sister. She bore him Aaron and Moses. Amram lived 132 years and then died.

21 The sons of Izhar were Korah, Nepheg, and Zichri.

22 The sons of Uzziel were Mishael, Elzaphan, and Sithri.

23 Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab, sister of Nahshon. She bore him Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

24 The sons of Korah were Assir, Elkanah, and Abiasaph. These were the clan ancestors of the Korahites.

25 Eleazar, Aaron’s son, married one of the daughters of Putiel. She bore him Phinehas. These were the heads of the fathers’ houses among the Levites, together with their descendants.

26 These two men were the Aaron and Moses to whom Yehovah said, “Bring out the Israelites from the land of Egypt, by their groups of fighting men.”

27 Aaron and Moses spoke to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, to allow them to bring out the Israelites from Egypt. These were the same Moses and Aaron.

28 When Yehovah spoke to Moses in the land of Egypt,

29 he said to him, “I am Yehovah. Say to Pharaoh, king of Egypt, everything that I will tell you.”

30 But Moses said to Yehovah, “I am not good at speaking, so why will Pharaoh listen to me?”


Moses and Aaron Before Pharaoh

YEHOVAH said to Moses, “See, I have made you like a god to Pharaoh. Aaron your brother will be your prophet.

2 You will say everything that I command you to say. Aaron your brother will speak to Pharaoh so that he will let the people of Israel go from his land.

3 But I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and I will display many signs of my power, many wonders, in the land of Egypt.

4 But Pharaoh will not listen to you, so I will put my hand on Egypt and bring out my groups of fighting men, my people, the descendants of Israel, out of the land of Egypt by great acts of punishment.

5 The Egyptians will know that I am Yehovah when I reach out with my hand on Egypt and bring out the Israelites from among them.

6 Moses and Aaron did so; they did just as Yehovah commanded them.

7 Moses was eighty years old, and Aaron eighty-three years old when they spoke to Pharaoh.

8 Yehovah said to Moses and to Aaron,

9 “When Pharaoh says to you, ‘Do a miracle,’ then you will say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and throw it down before Pharaoh, so that it may become a snake.’”

10 Then Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh, and they did just as Yehovah had commanded. Aaron threw down his staff before Pharaoh and his servants, and it became a snake.

11 Then Pharaoh also called for his wise men and sorcerers. They did the same thing by their magic.

12 Each man threw down his staff, and the staffs became snakes. But Aaron’s staff swallowed up their snakes.

13 Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he did not listen, just as Yehovah had foretold.

The First Plague: Water Turned to Blood

14 Yehovah said to Moses, “Pharaoh’s heart is hard, and he refuses to let the people go.

15 Go to Pharaoh in the morning when he goes out to the water. Stand on the riverbank to meet him, and take in your hand the staff that had turned into a snake.

16 Say to him, ’Yehovah, the Almighty of the Hebrews, has sent me to you to say, “Let my people go, so that they may worship me in the wilderness. Until now you have not listened.”

17 Yehovah says this: “By this you will know that I am Yehovah. I am going to strike the water of the Nile River with the staff that is in my hand, and the river will be turned to blood.

18 The fish that are in the river will die, and the river will stink. The Egyptians will not be able to drink water from the river.””’

19 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Take your staff and reach out with your hand over the waters of Egypt, and over their rivers, streams, pools, and all their ponds, so that their water may become blood. Do this so that there will be blood throughout all the land of Egypt, even in containers of wood and stone.’”

20 Moses and Aaron did as Yehovah commanded. Aaron raised the staff and struck the water in the river, in the sight of Pharaoh and his servants. All the water in the river turned to blood.

21 The fish in the river died, and the river began to stink. The Egyptians could not drink water from the river, and the blood was everywhere in the land of Egypt.

22 But the magicians of Egypt did the same thing with their magic. So Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he refused to listen to Moses and Aaron, just as Yehovah had said would happen.

23 Then Pharaoh turned and went into his house. He did not even pay attention to this.

24 All the Egyptians dug around the river for water to drink, but they could not drink the water of the river itself.

25 Seven days passed after Yehovah had attacked the river.


The Second Plague: Frogs

THEN Yehovah spoke to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ’Yehovah says this: “Let my people go so that they may worship me.

2 If you refuse to let them go, I will afflict all your country with frogs.

3 The river will swarm with frogs. They will come up and go into your house, your bedroom, and your bed. They will go into your servants’ houses. They will go onto your people, into your ovens, and into your kneading bowls.

4 The frogs will attack you, your people, and all your servants.””’

5 Yehovah said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Reach out with your hand and your staff over the rivers, the streams, and the pools, and bring the frogs up over the land of Egypt.’”

6 Aaron reached out with his hand over Egypt’s waters, and the frogs came up and covered the land of Egypt.

7 But the magicians did the same with their magic: They brought up frogs over the land of Egypt.

8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron and said, “Pray to Yehovah for him to take away the frogs from me and my people. Then I will let the people go, that they may sacrifice to him.”

9 Moses said to Pharaoh, “You can have the privilege of telling me when I should pray for you, your servants, and your people, so that the frogs may be removed from you and your houses and stay only in the river.”

10 Pharaoh said, “Tomorrow.” Moses said, “Let it be as you say, so that you may know that there is no one like Yehovah, our Almighty.

11 The frogs will go from you, your houses, your servants, and your people. They will stay only in the river.

12 Moses and Aaron went out from Pharaoh. Then Moses cried out to Yehovah concerning the frogs that he had brought on Pharaoh.

13 Yehovah did as Moses asked: The frogs died in the houses, courts, and fields.

14 The people gathered them together in heaps, and the land stank.

15 But when Pharaoh saw that there was relief, he hardened his heart and did not listen to Moses and Aaron, just as Yehovah had said that he would do.

The Third Plague: Gnats

16 Yehovah said to Moses, “Say to Aaron, ‘Reach out with your staff and strike the dust on the ground, that it may become gnats throughout all the land of Egypt.’”

17 They did so: Aaron reached out with his hand and his staff. He struck the dust on the ground. Gnats came onto man and beast. All the dust on the ground became gnats throughout the whole land of Egypt.

18 The magicians tried with their magic to produce gnats, but they could not. There were gnats on man and beast.

19 Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of the Almighty.” But Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, so he refused to listen to them. It was just as Yehovah had said Pharaoh would do.

The Fourth Plague: Flies

20 Yehovah said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning and stand in front of Pharaoh as he goes out to the river. Say to him, ’Yehovah says this: “Let my people go so that they may worship me.

21 But if you do not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies on you, your servants, and your people, and into your houses. The Egyptians’ houses will be full of swarms of flies, and even the ground on which they stand will be full of flies.

22 But on that day I will treat the land of Goshen differently, the land in which my people are living, so that no swarms of flies will be there. This will happen so that you may know that I am Yehovah in the midst of this land.

23 I will make a distinction between my people and your people. This sign of my power will take place tomorrow.””’

24 Yehovah did so, and thick swarms of flies came into Pharaoh’s house and into his servants’ houses. Throughout the whole land of Egypt, the land was ruined because of the swarms of flies.

25 Pharaoh called for Moses and for Aaron and said, “Go, sacrifice to your Almighty in our own land.”

26 Moses said, “It is not right for us to do so, for the sacrifices we make to Yehovah our Almighty are something disgusting to the Egyptians. If we make sacrifices right before their eyes that are disgusting to the Egyptians, will they not stone us?

27 No, it is a three days’ journey into the wilderness that we must make, in order to sacrifice to Yehovah our Almighty, as he commands us.”

28 Pharaoh said, “I will allow you to go and sacrifice to Yehovah your Almighty in the wilderness. Only you must not go very far away. Pray for me.”

29 Moses said, “As soon as I go out from you, I will pray to Yehovah that the swarms of flies may leave you, Pharaoh, and your servants and people tomorrow. But you must not deal deceitfully anymore by not letting our people go to sacrifice to Yehovah.”

30 Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to Yehovah.

31 Yehovah did as Moses asked: He removed the swarms of flies from Pharaoh, his servants, and his people. Not one remained.

32 But Pharaoh hardened his heart this time also, and he did not let the people go.


The Fifth Plague: Egyptian Livestock Die

THEN Yehovah said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh and tell him, ’Yehovah, the Almighty of the Hebrews, says this: “Let my people go so that they may worship me.”

2 But if you refuse to let them go, if you still keep them back,

3 then Yehovah’s hand will be on your cattle in the fields and on the horses, donkeys, camels, herds, and flocks, and it will cause a terrible disease.

4 Yehovah will treat Israel’s cattle and Egypt’s cattle differently: No animal that belongs to the Israelites will die.

5 Yehovah has fixed a time; he has said, “It is tomorrow that I will do this thing in the land.”’”

6 Yehovah did this the next day: All the cattle of Egypt died. But none of the Israelites’ animals died, not one animal.

The Sixth Plague: Boils

7 Pharaoh investigated, and behold, not even one animal of the Israelites died. But his heart was stubborn, so he did not let the people go.

8 Then Yehovah said to Moses and to Aaron, “Take some handfuls of ashes from a kiln. You, Moses, must throw the ashes up into the air while Pharaoh is watching.

9 They will become fine dust over all the land of Egypt. They will cause blisters and sores to break out on people and animals throughout all the land of Egypt.

10 So Moses and Aaron took ashes from a kiln and stood in front of Pharaoh. Then Moses threw the ashes up into the air. The ashes caused blisters and sores to break out on people and animals.

11 The magicians could not resist Moses because of the blisters, because the blisters were on them and on all the other Egyptians.

12 Yehovah hardened Pharaoh’s heart, so Pharaoh did not listen to Moses and Aaron. This was just as Yehovah had said to Moses that Pharaoh would do.

The Seventh Plague: Hail

13 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Get up early in the morning, stand in front of Pharaoh, and say to him, ’Yehovah, the Almighty of the Hebrews, says this: “Let my people go so that they may worship me.

14 For this time I will send all my plagues on you yourself, on your servants and your people. I will do this so that you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth.

15 By now I could have reached out with my hand and attacked you and your people with disease, and you would have been eradicated from the land.

16 But it was for this reason I allowed you to survive: In order to show you my power, so that my name may be proclaimed throughout all the earth.

17 You are still lifting yourself up against my people by not letting them go.

18 Listen! Tomorrow about this time I will bring a very strong hail storm, such as has not been seen in Egypt since the day it was begun until now.

19 Now then, send men and gather your cattle and everything you have in the fields to a safe place. Every man and animal that is in the field and is not brought home, the hail will come down on them, and they will die.””’

20 Then those of Pharaoh’s servants who believed in Yehovah’s message hurried to bring their slaves and cattle into the houses.

21 But those who did not take Yehovah’s message seriously left their slaves and cattle in the fields.

22 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Reach out with your hand toward the sky so that there will be hail in all the land of Egypt, on people, on animals, and on all the plants in the fields throughout the land of Egypt.”

23 Moses reached out with his staff toward the sky, and Yehovah sent thunder, hail, and lightning to the ground. He also rained hail on the land of Egypt.

24 So there were hail and lightning mixed with hail, very severe, such as had not been in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation.

25 Throughout all the land of Egypt, the hail struck everything in the fields, both people and animals. It struck every plant in the fields and broke every tree.

26 Only in the land of Goshen, where the Israelites lived, was there no hail.

27 Then Pharaoh sent men to summon Moses and Aaron. He said to them, “I have sinned this time. Yehovah is righteous, and I and my people are wicked.

28 Pray to Yehovah, because the mighty thunderbolts and hail are too much. I will let you go, and you will stay here no longer.

29 Moses said to him, “As soon as I leave the city, I will spread my hands out to Yehovah. The thunder will stop, and there will not be any more hail. In this way you will know that the earth belongs to Yehovah.

30 But as for you and your servants, I know that you do not yet really honor Yehovah Almighty.

31 Now the flax and the barley were ruined, for the barley was maturing in the ear, and the flax was in bloom.

32 But the wheat and the spelt were not harmed because they were later crops.

33 When Moses had left Pharaoh and the city, he spread out his hands to Yehovah; the thunder and hail stopped, and the rain came down no more.

34 When Pharaoh saw that the rain, hail, and thunder had ceased, he sinned again and hardened his heart, together with his servants.

35 Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, so he did not let the people of Israel go. This was the way that Yehovah had said to Moses that Pharaoh would act.


The Eighth Plague: Locusts

YEHOVAH said to Moses, “Go to Pharaoh, for I have hardened his heart and the hearts of his servants. I have done this to show these signs of my power among them.

2 I have also done this so that you may tell your children and grandchildren the things I have done, how I have harshly treated Egypt, and how I have given various signs of my power among them. In this way you will know that I am Yehovah.

3 So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and said to him, “Yehovah, the Almighty of the Hebrews, says this: ’How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go so that they may worship me.

4 But if you refuse to let my people go, listen, tomorrow I will bring locusts into your land.

5 They will cover the surface of the ground so that no one will be able to see the earth. They will eat the remains of whatever escaped from the hail. They will also eat every tree that grows for you in the fields.

6 They will fill your houses, those of all your servants, and those of all the Egyptians, something neither your father nor your grandfather ever saw, nothing ever seen since the day that they were on the earth to this present day.’” Then Moses left and went out from Pharaoh.

7 Pharaoh’s servants said to him, “How long will this man be a menace to us? Let the Israelites go so that they may worship Yehovah their Almighty. Do you not yet realize that Egypt is destroyed?”

8 Moses and Aaron were brought again to Pharaoh, who said to them, “Go worship Yehovah your Almighty. But what people will go?”

9 Moses said, “We will go with our young and with our old, with our sons and our daughters. We will go with our flocks and herds, for we must hold a festival for Yehovah.”

10 Pharaoh said to them, “May Yehovah indeed be with you, if I ever let you go and your little ones go. Look, you have some evil in mind.

11 No! Go, just the men among you, and worship Yehovah, for that is what you want.” Then Moses and Aaron were driven out from Pharaoh’s presence.

12 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Reach out with your hand over the land of Egypt to the locusts, that they may attack the land of Egypt and eat every plant in it, everything that the hail has left.”

13 Moses reached out with his staff over the land of Egypt, and Yehovah brought an east wind over the land all that day and night. When it was morning, the east wind had brought the locusts.

14 The locusts went through all the land of Egypt and infested all parts of it. Never before had there been such a swarm of locusts in the land, and nothing like this will come after it.

15 They covered the surface of the whole land so that it was darkened. They ate every plant in the land and all the fruit of the trees that the hail had left. Throughout all the land of Egypt, no living green plant remained, nor any tree or plant in the fields.

16 Then Pharaoh quickly summoned Moses and Aaron and said, “I have sinned against Yehovah your Almighty and against you.

17 Now then, forgive my sin this time, and pray to Yehovah your Almighty that he will take this death away from me.

18 So Moses went out from Pharaoh and prayed to Yehovah.

19 Yehovah brought a very strong west wind that picked up the locusts and drove them into the Red Sea; not a single locust remained in all the territory of Egypt.

20 But Yehovah hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and Pharaoh did not let the Israelites go.

The Ninth Plague: Darkness

21 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Reach out with your hand toward the sky, so that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness that may be felt.”

22 Moses reached out with his hand toward the sky, and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt for three days.

23 No one could see anyone else; no one left his home for three days. However, all the Israelites had light in the place where they lived.

24 Pharaoh summoned Moses and said, “Go worship Yehovah. Even your families may go with you, but your flocks and herds must remain behind.”

25 But Moses said, “You must also give us animals for sacrifices and burnt offerings so that we may sacrifice them to Yehovah our Almighty.

26 Our cattle must also go with us; not a hoof of them may be left behind, for we must take them to worship Yehovah our Almighty. For we do not know with what we must worship Yehovah until we arrive there.

27 But Yehovah hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and he would not let them go.

28 Pharaoh said to Moses, “Go from me! Be careful about one thing, that you do not see me again, for on the day you see my face, you will die.”

29 Moses said, “You yourself have spoken. I will not see your face again.”


A Final Plague Threatened

THEN Yehovah said to Moses, “There is still one more plague that I will bring on Pharaoh and Egypt. After that, he will let you go from here. When he finally lets you go, he will drive you away completely.

2 Instruct the people that every man and woman is to ask of his or her neighbor for articles of silver and articles of gold.

3 Now Yehovah had made the Egyptians eager to please the Israelites. Moreover, the man Moses was very impressive in the sight of Pharaoh’s servants and the people of Egypt.

4 Moses said, “Yehovah says this: ’About midnight I will go throughout Egypt.

5 All the firstborn in the land of Egypt will die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sits on his throne, to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the handmill grinding it, and to all the firstborn of the cattle.

6 Then there will be a great wailing throughout all the land of Egypt, such as has never been nor ever will be again.

7 But not even a dog will bark against any of the people of Israel, against either man or beast. In this way you will know that I am treating the Egyptians and the Israelites differently.

8 All these servants of yours, Pharaoh, will come down to me and bow down to me. They will say, ‘Go, you and all the people who follow you!’ After that I will go out.” Then he went out from Pharaoh in great anger.

9 Yehovah said to Moses, “Pharaoh will not listen to you. This is so that I will do many amazing things in the land of Egypt.”

10 Moses and Aaron did all these wonders before Pharaoh. But Yehovah hardened Pharaoh’s heart, and Pharaoh did not let the people of Israel go out of his land.


The Passover

YEHOVAH spoke to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt. He said,

2 “For you, this month will be the start of months, the first month of the year to you.

3 Tell the assembly of Israel, ’On the tenth day of this month they must each take a lamb or young goat for themselves, each family doing this, a lamb for each household.

4 If the household is too small for a lamb, the man and his next door neighbor are to take lamb or young goat meat that will be enough for the number of the people. It should be enough for everyone to eat, so they must take enough meat to feed them all.

5 Your lamb or young goat must be without blemish, a one-year-old male. You may take one of the sheep or goats.

6 You must keep it until the fourteenth day of that month. Then the whole assembly of Israel must kill these animals at twilight.

7 You must take some of the blood and put it on the two side doorposts and on the tops of the door frames of the houses in which you will eat the meat.

8 You must eat the meat that night, after first roasting it over a fire. Eat it with bread made without yeast, along with bitter herbs.

9 Do not eat it raw or boiled in water. Instead, roast it over fire with its head, legs and inner parts.

10 You must not let any of it be left over until morning. You must burn whatever is left over in the morning.

11 This is how you must eat it: with your belt fastened, your shoes on your feet, and your staff in your hand. You must eat it hurriedly. It is Yehovah’s Passover.

12 Yehovah says this: I will go through the land of Egypt in that night and attack all the firstborn of man and animal in the land of Egypt. I will bring punishment on all the gods of Egypt. I am Yehovah.

13 The blood will be a sign on your houses for my coming to you. When I see the blood, I will pass over you when I attack the land of Egypt. This plague will not come on you and destroy you.

14 This day will become a memorial day for you, which you must observe as a festival for Yehovah. It will always be a law for you, throughout your people’s generations, that you must observe this day.

15 You will eat bread without yeast during seven days. On the first day you will remove the yeast from your houses. Whoever eats leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that person must be cut off from Israel.

16 On the first day there will be an assembly that is set apart to me, and on the seventh day there will be another such gathering. No work will be done on these days, except the cooking for everyone to eat. That must be the only work that may be done by you.

17 You must observe this Festival of Unleavened Bread because it is on this day that I will have brought your people, armed group by armed group, out of the land of Egypt. So you must observe this day throughout your people’s generations. This will always be a law for you.

18 You must eat unleavened bread from twilight of the fourteenth day in the first month of the year, until twilight of the twenty-first day of the month.

19 During these seven days, no yeast must be found in your houses. Whoever eats bread made with yeast must be cut off from the community of Israel, whether that person is a foreigner or someone born in your land.

20 You must eat nothing made with yeast. Wherever you live, you must eat bread made without yeast.’”

21 Then Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, “Go and select lambs or kids that will be enough to feed your families and kill the Passover lamb.

22 Then take a bunch of hyssop and dip it in the blood that will be in a basin. Apply the blood in the basin to the top of the doorframe and the two doorposts. None of you is to go out of the door of his house until the morning.

23 For Yehovah will pass through to attack the Egyptians. When he sees the blood on the top of the door frame and on the two doorposts, he will pass over your door and not permit the destroyer to come into your houses to attack you.

24 You must observe this event. This will always be a law for you and your descendants.

25 When you enter the land that Yehovah will give you, just as he has promised to do, you must observe this act of worship.

26 When your children ask you, ‘What does this act of worship mean?’

27 Then you must say, ‘It is the sacrifice of Yehovah’s Passover, because Yehovah passed over the Israelites’ houses in Egypt when he attacked the Egyptians. He set our households free.’” Then the people bowed down and worshiped Yehovah.

28 The Israelites went and did exactly as Yehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron.

The Tenth Plague: Death of the Firstborn

29 It happened at midnight that Yehovah attacked all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh, who sat on his throne, to the firstborn of the person in prison and all the firstborn of cattle.

30 Pharaoh got up in the night, he, all his servants, and all the Egyptians. There was loud lamenting in Egypt, for there was not a house where there was not someone dead.

31 Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron in the night and said, “Get up, get out from among my people, you and the Israelites. Go, worship Yehovah, as you have said you wanted to do.

32 Take your flocks and your herds, as you have said, and go, and also bless me.

The Exodus

33 The Egyptians were in a great hurry to send them out of the land, for they said, “We are all dead people.”

34 So the people took their dough without adding any yeast. Their kneading bowls were already tied up in their clothes and on their shoulders.

35 Now the people of Israel did as Moses told them. They asked the Egyptians for articles of silver, articles of gold, and clothing.

36 Yehovah made the Egyptians eager to please the Israelites. So the Egyptians gave them whatever they asked for. In this way, the Israelites plundered the Egyptians.

37 The Israelites journeyed from Rameses to Succoth. They numbered about 600,000 men on foot, in addition to the women and children.

38 A mixed ethno-linguistic crowd of non-Israelites also went with them, together with flocks and herds, a very large number of cattle.

39 They baked bread without yeast in the dough that they brought from Egypt. It was without yeast because they had been driven out of Egypt and could not delay to prepare food.

40 The Israelites had lived in Egypt and Canaan for 430 years.

41 At the end of 430 years, on that very day, all of Yehovah’s armed groups went out from the land of Egypt.

42 This was a night to stay awake, for Yehovah to bring them out from the land of Egypt. This was Yehovah’s night to be observed by all the Israelites throughout their people’s generations.

Institution of the Passover

43 Yehovah said to Moses and Aaron, “Here is the rule for the Passover: No foreigner may share in eating it.

44 However, every Israelite’s slave, bought with money, may eat it after you have circumcised him.

45 Foreigners and hired servants must not eat any of the food.

46 The food must be eaten in one house. You must not carry any of the meat out of the house, and you must not break any bone of it.

47 All the community of Israel must observe the festival.

48 If a foreigner lives with you and wants to observe the Passover to Yehovah, all his male relatives must be circumcised. Then he may come and observe it. He will become like the people who were born in the land. However, no uncircumcised person may eat any of the food.

49 This same Torah will apply to both the native born and to the foreigner who lives among you.

50 So all the Israelites did exactly as Yehovah had commanded Moses and Aaron.

51 It came about that very day that Yehovah brought Israel out of the land of Egypt by their armed groups.


Consecration of the Firstborn

YEHOVAH spoke to Moses and said,

2 “Set apart to me all the firstborn, every firstborn male among the Israelites, both of people and animals. The firstborn belongs to me.”

The Feast of Unleavened Bread

3 Moses said to the people, “Call this day to mind, the day on which you came out from Egypt, out of the house of slavery, for by Yehovah’s strong hand he brought you out from this place. No bread with yeast may be eaten.

4 You are going out of Egypt on this day, in the month of Abib.

5 When Yehovah brings you into the land of the Canaanites, Hethites, Amorites, Hivites, and the Jebusites, the land that he swore to your ancestors to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, then you must observe this act of worship in this month.

6 For seven days you must eat bread without yeast; on the seventh day there will be a feast to honor Yehovah.

7 Bread without yeast must be eaten throughout the seven days; no bread with yeast may be seen among you. No yeast may be seen with you within any of your borders.

8 On that day you are to say to your children, ‘This is because of what Yehovah did for me when I came out of Egypt.’

9 This will be a reminder for you on your hand, and a reminder on your forehead. This is so the Torah of Yehovah may be in your mouth, for with a strong hand Yehovah brought you out of Egypt.

10 Therefore, you must keep this law at its appointed time from year to year.

11 When Yehovah brings you into the land of the Canaanites, as he swore to you and to your ancestors to do, and when he gives the land to you,

12 you must set apart for him every firstborn child and the first offspring of your animals. The males will be Yehovah’s.

13 Every firstborn of a donkey you must buy back with a lamb. If you do not buy it back, then you must break its neck. But each of your firstborn males among all your sons, you must buy them back.

14 When your son asks you later, ‘What does this mean?’ then you are to tell him, ’It was by a strong hand that Yehovah brought us out from Egypt, from the house of slavery.

15 When Pharaoh stubbornly refused to let us go, Yehovah killed all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the firstborn of people and the firstborn of animals. That is why I sacrifice to Yehovah the firstborn male of every animal, and why I buy back the firstborn of my sons.

16 This will become a reminder on your hands, and a reminder on your forehead, for it was by a strong hand Yehovah brought us out of Egypt.

Pillars of Cloud and Fire

17 When Pharaoh let the people go, the Almighty did not lead them by way of the land of the Philistines, although that land was nearby. For the Almighty said, “Perhaps the people will change their minds when they experience war and will then return to Egypt.”

18 So the Almighty led the people around through the wilderness to the Red Sea. The Israelites went up out of the land of Egypt armed for battle.

19 Moses took the bones of Joseph with him, for Joseph had made the Israelites solemnly swear and said, “The Almighty will surely rescue you, and you must carry away my bones with you.”

20 The Israelites journeyed from Succoth and camped at Etham on the edge of the wilderness.

21 Yehovah went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them on the way. By night he went in a pillar of fire to give them light. In this way they could travel by day and by night.

22 Yehovah did not take away from before the people the daytime pillar of cloud or the nighttime pillar of fire.


Crossing the Red Sea

YEHOVAH spoke to Moses and said,

2 “Say to the Israelites that they should turn and camp before Pi Hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, before Baal Zephon. You are to camp by the sea opposite Pi Hahiroth.

3 Pharaoh will say about the Israelites, ‘They are wandering in the land. The wilderness has closed in on them.’

4 I will harden Pharaoh’s heart, and he will pursue them. I will get honor because of Pharaoh and all his army. The Egyptians will know that I am Yehovah.” So the Israelites camped as they were instructed.

5 When the king of Egypt was told that the Israelites had fled, the minds of Pharaoh and his servants turned against the people. They said, “What have we done in letting Israel go free from working for us?”

6 Then Pharaoh got his chariots ready and took his army with him.

7 He took six hundred chosen chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt, with officers on all of them.

8 Yehovah hardened the heart of Pharaoh, king of Egypt, and the king pursued the Israelites. Now the Israelites had gone away in triumph.

9 But the Egyptians pursued them, together with all his horses and chariots, his horsemen, and his army. They overtook the Israelites camping by the sea beside Pi Hahiroth, before Baal Zephon.

10 When Pharaoh came close, the Israelites looked up and were surprised. The Egyptians were marching after them, and they were terrified. The Israelites cried out to Yehovah.

11 They said to Moses, “Is it because there were no graves in Egypt, that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? Why have you treated us like this, bringing us out of Egypt?

12 Is this not what we told you in Egypt? We said to you, ‘Leave us alone, so we can work for the Egyptians.’ It would have been better for us to work for them than to die in the wilderness.”

13 Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid. Stand still and see the rescue that Yehovah will provide for you today. For you will never see again the Egyptians whom you see today.

14 Yehovah will fight for you, and you will only have to stand still.

15 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “Why are you, Moses, continuing to call out to me? Tell the Israelites to go forward.

16 Lift up your staff, reach out with your hand over the sea and divide it in two, so that the people of Israel may go through the sea on dry ground.

17 Be aware that I will harden the Egyptians’ hearts so they will go after them. I will get honor because of Pharaoh and all his army, his chariots, and his horsemen.

18 Then the Egyptians will know that I am Yehovah when I have gotten honor because of Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.

19 The angel of the Almighty, who went before the Israelites, moved and went behind them. The pillar of cloud moved from before them and went to stand behind them.

20 The cloud came between the camp of Egypt and the camp of Israel. It was a dark cloud to the Egyptians, but it lit the night for the Israelites, so one side did not come near the other all night.

21 Moses reached out with his hand over the sea. Yehovah drove the sea back by a strong east wind all that night and made the sea into dry land. In this way the waters were divided.

22 The Israelites went into the middle of the sea on dry ground. The waters formed a wall for them on their right hand and on their left.

23 The Egyptians pursued them. They went after them into the middle of the sea, all Pharaoh’s horses, chariots, and horsemen.

24 But in the early morning hours, Yehovah looked down on the Egyptian army through the pillar of fire and cloud. He caused panic among the Egyptians.

25 Their chariot wheels were clogged, and the horsemen drove with difficulty. So the Egyptians said, “Let us flee from Israel, for Yehovah is fighting for them against us.”

26 Yehovah said to Moses, “Reach out with your hand over the sea so that the waters may come back onto the Egyptians, their chariots, and their horsemen.”

27 So Moses reached out with his hand over the sea, and it returned to its normal course when the morning appeared. The Egyptians fled into the sea, and Yehovah drove the Egyptians into the middle of it.

28 The waters came back and covered Pharaoh’s chariots, horsemen, and his entire army that had followed the chariots into the sea. No one survived.

29 However, the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea. The waters were a wall for them on their right hand and on their left.

30 So Yehovah saved Israel that day out of the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw dead Egyptians on the seashore.

31 When Israel saw the great power that Yehovah used against the Egyptians, the people honored Yehovah, and they trusted in Yehovah and in his servant Moses.


The Song of Moses

THEN Moses and the people of Israel sang this song to Yehovah. They sang, “I will sing to Yehovah, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and its rider he has thrown into the sea.

2 Yehovah is my strength and song, and he has become my salvation (Y’shua). This is my Almighty, and I will praise him, my father’s Almighty, and I will exalt him.

3 Yehovah is a warrior; Yehovah is his name.

4 He has thrown Pharaoh’s chariots and army into the sea. Pharaoh’s chosen officers were drowned in the Red Sea.

5 The depths covered them; they went down into the depths like a stone.

6 Your right hand, Yehovah, is glorious in power; your right hand, Yehovah, has shattered the enemy.

7 In great majesty you overthrew those who rose up against you. You sent out your wrath; it consumed them like stubble.

8 By the blast of your nostrils the waters were piled up; the flowing waters stood upright in a heap; the deep water was congealed in the heart of the sea.

9 The enemy said, ’I will pursue, I will overtake, I will share out the plunder; my desire will be satisfied on them; I will draw my sword; my hand will destroy them.’

10 But you blew with your wind, and the sea covered them; they sank like lead in the mighty waters.

11 Who is like you, Yehovah, among the gods? Who is like you, majestic in holiness, honored in praises, doing miracles?

12 You reached out with your right hand, and the earth swallowed them.

13 In your covenant loyalty you have led the people you have rescued. In your strength you have led them to the holy place where you live.

14 The peoples will hear, and they will tremble; terror will seize the inhabitants of Philistia.

15 Then the chiefs of Edom will fear; the soldiers of Moab will shake; all the inhabitants of Canaan will melt away.

16 Terror and dread will fall on them. Because of your arm’s power, they will become as still as a stone until your people pass by, Yehovah, until the people you have rescued pass by.

17 You will bring them and plant them on the mountain of your inheritance, the place, Yehovah, that you have made to live in, the sanctuary, our Lord, that your hands have built.

18 Yehovah will reign forever and ever.

19 For Pharaoh’s horses went with his chariots and horsemen into the sea. Yehovah brought back the waters of the sea on them. But the Israelites walked on dry land in the middle of the sea.

20 Miriam the prophetess, sister of Aaron, picked up a tambourine, and all the women went out with tambourines, dancing along with her.

21 Miriam sang to them: “Sing to Yehovah, for he has triumphed gloriously. The horse and his rider he has thrown into the sea.”

Bitter Water Made Sweet

22 Then Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea. They went out into the wilderness of Shur. They traveled for three days into the wilderness and found no water.

23 Then they came to Marah, but they could not drink the water there because it was bitter. So they called that place Marah.

24 So the people complained to Moses and said, “What can we drink?”

25 Moses cried out to Yehovah, and Yehovah showed him a tree. Moses threw it into the water, and the water became sweet to drink. It was there that Yehovah gave them a strict law, and it was there that he tested them.

26 He said, “If you carefully listen to the voice of Yehovah your Almighty, and do what is right in his eyes, and if you give ear to his commands and obey all his laws, I will put on you none of the diseases that I put on the Egyptians, for I am Yehovah who heals you.”

27 Then the people came to Elim, where there were twelve springs of water and seventy palm trees. They camped there by the water.


Bread from Heaven

THE people journeyed on from Elim, and all the community of Israelites came to the wilderness of Sin, which is between Elim and Sinai, on the fifteenth day of the second month after their departure from the land of Egypt.

2 The whole community of Israelites complained against Moses and Aaron in the wilderness.

3 The Israelites said to them, “If only we had died by Yehovah’s hand in the land of Egypt when we were sitting by the pots of meat and were eating bread to the full. For you have brought us out into this wilderness to kill our whole community with hunger.”

4 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “I will rain down bread from heaven for you. The people will go out and gather a day’s portion every day so that I may test them to see whether or not they will walk in my Torah.

5 It will come about on the sixth day, that they will gather twice as much as what they gathered every day before, and they will cook what they bring in.

6 Then Moses and Aaron said to all the people of Israel, “In the evening you will know that it is Yehovah who has brought you out from the land of Egypt.

7 In the morning you will see Yehovah’s glory, for he hears your complaining against him. Who are we for you to complain against us?”

8 Moses also said, “You will know this when Yehovah gives you meat in the evening and bread in the morning to the full, for he has heard the complaints that you speak against him. Who are Aaron and I? Your complaints are not against us; they are against Yehovah.”

9 Moses said to Aaron, “Say to all the community of the people of Israel, ‘Come near before Yehovah, for he has heard your complaints.’”

10 It came about, as Aaron spoke to the whole community of the people of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, Yehovah’s glory appeared in the cloud.

11 Then Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

12 “I have heard the complaints of the people of Israel. Speak to them and say, ‘In the evening you will eat meat, and in the morning you will be filled with bread. Then you will know that I am Yehovah your Almighty.’”

13 It came about in the evening that quails came up and covered the camp. In the morning the dew lay round about the camp.

14 When the dew was gone, there on the surface of the wilderness were thin flakes like frost on the ground.

15 When the people of Israel saw it, they said one to another, “What is it?” They did not know what it was. Moses said to them, “It is the bread that Yehovah has given you to eat.

16 This is the command that Yehovah has given: ‘You must gather, each one of you, the amount you need to eat, an omer for each person of the number of your people. This is how you will gather it: Gather enough to eat for every person who lives in your tent.’”

17 The people of Israel did so. Some gathered more, some gathered less.

18 When they measured it with an omer measure, those who had gathered much had nothing left over, and those who had gathered little had no lack. Each person gathered enough to meet their need.

19 Then Moses said to them, “No one must leave any of it until morning.”

20 However, they did not listen to Moses. Some of them left some of it until morning, but it bred worms and became foul. Then Moses became angry with them.

21 They gathered it morning by morning. Each person gathered enough to eat for that day. When the sun became hot, it melted.

22 It came about that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each person. All the leaders of the community came and told this to Moses.

23 He said to them, “This is what Yehovah has said: ‘Tomorrow is a solemn rest, a holy Sabbath in Yehovah’s honor. Bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil. All that remains over, set it aside for yourselves until morning.’”

24 So they set it aside until morning, as Moses had instructed. It did not become foul, nor was there any worm in it.

25 Moses said, “Eat that food today, for today is a day reserved as a Sabbath to honor Yehovah. Today you will not find it in the fields.

26 You will gather it during six days, but the seventh day is the Sabbath. On the Sabbath there will be no manna.

27 It came about on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather manna, but they found none.

28 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “How long will you refuse to keep my commandments and my Torah?

29 See, Yehovah has given you the Sabbath. So on the sixth day he is giving you bread for two days. Each of you must stay in his own place; no one must go out from his place on the seventh day.

30 So the people rested on the seventh day.

31 The people of Israel called that food “manna.” It was white like coriander seed, and its taste was like wafers made with honey.

32 Moses said, “This is what Yehovah has commanded: ‘Let an omer of manna be kept throughout your people’s generations so that your descendants might see the bread with which I fed you in the wilderness, after I brought you out from the land of Egypt.’”

33 Moses said to Aaron, “Take a pot and put an omer of manna into it. Preserve it before Yehovah to be kept throughout the people’s generations.”

34 As Yehovah commanded Moses, Aaron stored it beside the covenant decrees in the ark.

35 The people of Israel ate manna forty years until they came to inhabited land. They ate it until they came to the borders of the land of Canaan.

36 Now an omer is a tenth of an ephah.


Water from the Rock

THE whole community of the Israelites journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, following Yehovah’s instructions. They camped at Rephidim, but there was no water for the people to drink.

2 So the people blamed Moses for their situation and said, “Give us water to drink.” Moses said, “Why do you quarrel with me? Why do you test Yehovah?”

3 The people were very thirsty, and they complained against Moses. They said, “Why have you brought us up out of Egypt? To kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?”

4 Then Moses cried out to Yehovah, “What should I do with this people? They are almost ready to stone me.”

5 Yehovah said to Moses, “Go on ahead of the people, and take with you some elders of Israel. Take with you the staff with which you struck the river, and go.

6 I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb, and you will strike the rock. Water will come out of it for the people to drink.” Then Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.

7 He called that place Massah and Meribah because of the Israelites’ complaining, and because they had tested Yehovah by saying, “Is Yehovah among us or not?”

Israel Defeats Amalek

8 Then an army of the Amalekite people came and attacked Israel at Rephidim.

9 So Moses said to Joshua, “Choose some men and go out. Fight with Amalek. Tomorrow I will stand on top of the hill with the staff of the Almighty in my hand.”

10 So Joshua fought Amalek as Moses had instructed, while Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill.

11 While Moses was holding his hands up, Israel was winning; when he let his hands rest, Amalek would begin to win.

12 When Moses’ hands became heavy, Aaron and Hur took a stone and put it under him for him to sit on. At the same time, Aaron and Hur held his hands up, one person on one side of him, and the other person on the other side. So Moses’ hands were held steady until the sun went down.

13 So Joshua defeated the people of Amalek with the sword.

14 Yehovah said to Moses, “Write this in a book and read it in Joshua’s hearing, because I will completely blot out the memory of Amalek from under the skies.”

15 Then Moses built an altar and he called it “Yehovah is my banner.”

16 He said, “For a hand was lifted up to the throne of Yehovah, that Yehovah will wage war with Amalek from generation to generation.”


Jethro’s Advice

JETHRO, the priest of Midian, Moses’ father-in-law, heard of all that the Almighty had done for Moses and for Israel his people. He heard that Yehovah had brought Israel out of Egypt.

2 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, took Zipporah, Moses’ wife, after he had sent her home,

3 and her two sons; the name of the one son was Gershom, for Moses had said, “I have been a foreigner in a foreign land.”

4 The name of the other was Eliezer, for Moses had said, “My ancestor’s Almighty was my help. He rescued me from Pharaoh’s sword.”

5 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, came with Moses’ sons and his wife to Moses in the wilderness where he was camped at the mountain of the Almighty.

6 He said to Moses, “I, your father-in-law Jethro, am coming to you with your wife and her two sons.”

7 Moses went out to meet his father-in-law, bowed down, and kissed him. They asked about each other’s welfare and then went into the tent.

8 Moses told his father-in-law all that Yehovah had done to Pharaoh and the Egyptians for Israel’s sake, about all the hardships that had come to them along the way, and how Yehovah had rescued them.

9 Jethro rejoiced over all the good that Yehovah had done for Israel, in that he had rescued them from the hand of the Egyptians.

10 Jethro said, “May Yehovah be praised, for he has rescued you from the hand of the Egyptians and from the hand of Pharaoh, and delivered the people from the hand of the Egyptians.

11 Now I know that Yehovah is greater than all the gods, because when the Egyptians treated the Israelites arrogantly, the Almighty rescued his people.

12 Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law, brought a burnt offering and sacrifices for the Almighty. Aaron and all the elders of Israel came to eat a meal before the Almighty with Moses’ father-in-law.

13 On the next day Moses sat down to judge the people. The people stood around him from morning until evening.

14 When Moses’ father-in-law saw all that he did for the people, he said, “What is this that you are doing with the people? Why is it that you sit alone and all the people stand about you from morning until evening?”

15 Moses said to his father-in-law, “The people come to me to ask for the Almighty’s direction.

16 When they have a dispute, they come to me. I decide between one person and another, and I teach them the Almighty’s statutes and Torah.”

17 Moses’ father-in-law said to him, “What you are doing is not very good.

18 You will surely wear yourselves out, you and the people who are with you. This burden is too heavy for you. You are not able to do it by yourself.

19 Listen to me. I will give you advice, and the Almighty will be with you, because you are the people’s representative to the Almighty, and you bring their disputes to him.

20 You must teach them his statutes and Torah. You must show them the way to walk and the work to do.

21 Furthermore, you must choose capable men from all the people, men who honor the Almighty, men of truth who hate unjust gain. You must put them over people, to be leaders in charge of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and of tens.

22 They will judge the people in all routine cases, but the difficult cases they will bring to you. As for all the small cases, they can judge those themselves. In that way it will be easier for you, and they will carry the burden with you.

23 If you do this, and if the Almighty commands you to do so, then you will be able to endure, and the entire people will be able to go home satisfied.

24 So Moses listened to his father-in-law’s words and did everything that he had said.

25 Moses chose capable men from all Israel and made them heads over the people, leaders in charge of thousands, hundreds, fifties, and tens.

26 They judged the people in normal circumstances. The difficult cases they brought to Moses, but they themselves judged all the small cases.

27 Then Moses let his father-in-law leave, and Jethro went back into his own land.


Israel at Mount Sinai

IN the third month after the people of Israel had gone out from the land of Egypt, on the same day, they came to the wilderness of Sinai.

2 After they left Rephidim and came to the wilderness of Sinai, they camped in the wilderness in front of the mountain.

3 Moses went up to the Almighty. Yehovah called to him from the mountain and said, “You must tell the house of Jacob, the people of Israel:

4 You have seen what I did to the Egyptians, how I carried you on eagles’ wings and brought you to myself.

5 Now then, if you obediently listen to my voice and keep my covenant, then you will be my special possession from among all peoples, for all the earth is mine.

6 You will be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation for me. These are the words that you must speak to the people of Israel.

7 So Moses came and summoned the elders of the people. He set before them all these words that Yehovah had commanded him.

8 All the people answered together and said, “We will do everything that Yehovah has said.” Then Moses came to report the people’s words to Yehovah.

9 Yehovah said to Moses, “I will come to you in a thick cloud so that the people may hear when I speak with you and may also believe you forever.” Then Moses told the people’s words to Yehovah.

10 Yehovah said to Moses, “Go to the people. Today and tomorrow you must set them apart to me, and make them wash their garments.

11 Be ready for the third day, for the third day I, Yehovah, will come down to Mount Sinai.

12 You must set boundaries all around the mountain for the people. Say to them, ‘Be careful that you do not go up the mountain or touch its border. Whoever touches the mountain will surely be put to death.’

13 No one’s hand must touch such a person. Instead, he must certainly be stoned or shot. Whether it is a person or an animal, he must be put to death. When the trumpet sounds a long blast, they may come up to the foot of the mountain.”

14 Then Moses went down from the mountain to the people. He set apart the people to Yehovah and they washed their garments.

15 He said to the people, “Be ready on the third day; do not go near your wives.”

16 On the third day, when it was morning, there were thunder and lightning bolts and a thick cloud on the mountain, and the sound of a very loud trumpet. All the people in the camp trembled.

17 Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet the Almighty, and they stood at the foot of the mountain.

18 Mount Sinai was completely covered with smoke because Yehovah descended on it in fire and smoke. The smoke went up like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain shook violently.

19 When the sound of the trumpet grew louder and louder, Moses spoke, and the Almighty answered him in a voice.

20 Yehovah came down on Mount Sinai, to the top of the mountain, and he summoned Moses to the top. So Moses went up.

21 Yehovah said to Moses, “Go down and warn the people not to break through to me to look, or many of them will perish.

22 Let the priests also who come near to me set themselves apart, prepare themselves for my coming, so that I do not attack them.”

23 Moses said to Yehovah, “The people cannot come up to the mountain, for you commanded us: ‘Set boundaries around the mountain and set it apart to Yehovah.’”

24 Yehovah said to him, “Go, get down the mountain, and bring up Aaron with you, but do not let the priests and the people break through the barrier to come up to me, or I will attack them.”

25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.


The Ten Commnadments

THE Almighty spoke all these words:

2 “I am Yehovah your Almighty, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery.

3 You must have no other gods before me.

4 You must not make for yourself a carved figure nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water below.

5 You must not bow down to them or worship them, for I, Yehovah your Almighty, am a jealous Divine One. I punish the ancestors’ wickedness by bringing punishment on the descendants, to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me.

6 But I show covenant faithfulness to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.

7 You must not take the name of me, Yehovah your Almighty, in vain, for I will not hold guiltless anyone who takes my name in vain.

8 Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart to me.

9 You must labor and do all your work for six days.

10 But the seventh day is a Sabbath for me, Yehovah your Almighty. On it you must not do any work, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor the foreigner who is within your gates.

11 For in six days I, Yehovah, made the heavens, earth, and sea, and everything that is in them, and then rested on the seventh day. Therefore, I, Yehovah, blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart to myself.

12 Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live a long time in the land which I, Yehovah your Almighty, am giving you.

13 You must not murder anyone.

14 You must not commit adultery.

15 You must not steal from anyone.

16 You must not give false testimony against your neighbor.

17 You must not covet your neighbor’s house; you must not covet your neighbor’s wife, his male servant, his female servant, his ox, his donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”

18 All the people saw the thundering and the lightning, and heard the voice of the trumpet, and saw the mountain smoking. When the people saw it, they trembled and stood far off.

19 They said to Moses, “Speak to us, and we will listen; but do not let the Almighty speak to us, or we will die.”

20 Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid, for the Almighty has come to test you so that the honor of him may be in you, and so that you do not sin.”

21 So the people stood far off, and Moses approached the thick darkness where the Almighty was.

Laws About Altars

22 Yehovah said to Moses, “This is what you must tell the Israelites: ’You yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.

23 You will not make for yourselves other gods alongside me, gods of silver or gods of gold.

24 You must make an earthen altar for me, and you must sacrifice on it your burnt offerings, fellowship offerings, sheep, and oxen. In every place where I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you.

25 If you make me an altar of stone, you must not build it of cut stones, for if you use your tools on it, you will have defiled it.

26 You must not go up by steps to my altar; this is to keep you from exposing your private parts.’”


Laws About Slaves

NOW these are the decrees that you must set before them:

2 ’If you buy a Hebrew servant, he is to serve for six years, and in the seventh year he will go free without paying anything.

3 If he came by himself, he must go free by himself; if he is married, then his wife must go free with him.

4 If his master gave him a wife and she bore him sons or daughters, the wife and her children will belong to her master, and he must go free by himself.

5 But if the servant plainly says, “I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free,”

6 then his master must bring him to the Almighty. The master must bring him to a door or doorpost, and his master must bore his ear through with an awl. Then the servant will serve him for the rest of his life.

7 If a man sells his daughter as a female servant, she must not go free as the male servants do.

8 If she does not please her master, who has designated her for himself, then he must let her be bought back. He has no right to sell her to a foreign people. He has no such right, since he has treated her deceitfully.

9 If her master designates her as a wife for his son, he must treat her the same as if she were his daughter.

10 If he takes another wife for himself, he must not diminish her food, clothing, or her marital rights.

11 But if he does not provide these three things for her, then she can go free without paying any money.

12 Whoever strikes a man so that he dies, that person must surely be put to death.

13 If the man did not do it with premeditation, but instead by accident, then I will fix a place to where he can flee.

14 If a man willfully attacks his neighbor and murders him according to a cunning plan, then you must take him, even if he is at the Almighty’s altar, so that he may die.

15 Whoever hits his father or mother must surely be put to death.

16 Whoever kidnaps a person and sells him, or the person is found in his possession, that kidnapper must surely be put to death.

17 Whoever curses his father or his mother must surely be put to death.

18 If men fight and one hits the other with a stone or with his fist, and that person does not die, but is confined to his bed;

19 then if he recovers and is able to walk about using his staff, the man who struck him must pay for the loss of his time; he must also pay for his complete recovery. But that man is not guilty of murder.

20 If a man hits his male servant or his female servant with a staff, and if the servant dies as a result of the blow, then that man must surely be punished.

21 However, if the servant lives for a day or two, the master must not be punished, for he will have suffered the loss of the servant.

22 If men fight together and hurt a pregnant woman so that she miscarries, but there is no other injury to her, then the guilty man must surely be fined as the woman’s husband demands it from him, and he must pay as the judges determine.

23 But if there is serious injury, then you must give a life for a life,

24 an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a hand for a hand, a foot for a foot,

25 a burn for a burn, a wound for a wound, or a bruise for a bruise.

26 If a man hits the eye of his male servant or of his female servant and destroys it, then he must let the servant go free in compensation for his eye.

27 If he knocks out a tooth of his male servant or female servant, he must let the servant go free as compensation for the tooth.

28 If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox must surely be stoned, and its flesh must not be eaten; but the ox’s owner must be acquitted of guilt.

29 But if the ox had a habit of goring in the past, and its owner was warned but did not keep it in, and the ox has killed a man or a woman, that ox must be stoned, and its owner also must be put to death.

30 If a payment is required for his life, he must pay whatever he is required to pay.

31 If the ox has gored a man’s son or daughter, the ox’s owner must do what this decree requires him to do.

32 If the ox gores a male servant or a female servant, the ox’s owner must pay thirty shekels of silver, and the ox must be stoned.

Laws About Restitution

33 If a man opens a pit, or if a man digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls into it,

34 the owner of the pit must repay the loss. He must give money to the dead animal’s owner, and the dead animal will become his.

35 If one man’s ox hurts another man’s ox so that it dies, then they must sell the live ox and divide its price, and they must also divide the dead ox.

36 But if it was known that the ox had a habit of goring in time past, and its owner has not kept it in, he must surely pay ox for ox, and the dead animal will become his own.


IF a man steals an ox or a sheep and kills it or sells it, then he must pay five oxen for one ox, and four sheep for one sheep.

2 If a thief is found breaking in, and if he is struck so that he dies, in that case no guilt for murder will attach to anyone on his account.

3 But if the sun has risen before he breaks in, guilt for murder will attach to the person who kills him. A thief must make restitution. If he has nothing, then he must be sold for his theft.

4 If the stolen animal is found alive in his possession, whether it is an ox, a donkey, or a sheep, he must pay back double.

5 If a man grazes his livestock in a field or vineyard and lets his animal loose, and it grazes in another man’s field, he must make restitution from the best of his own field and from the best of his own vineyard.

6 If a fire breaks out and spreads in thorns so that stacked grain, or standing grain, or a field is consumed, the one who started the fire must surely make restitution.

7 If a man gives money or goods to his neighbor for safe keeping, and if it is stolen out of the man’s house, if the thief is found, that thief must pay double.

8 But if the thief is not found, then the owner of the house must come before the judges to see whether he has put his own hand on his neighbor’s property.

9 For every dispute about something, whether it is an ox, a donkey, a sheep, clothing, or any other missing thing about which one says, “This belongs to me,” the claim of both parties must come before the judges. The man whom the judges find guilty must pay double to his neighbor.

10 If a man gives his neighbor a donkey, an ox, a sheep, or any animal to keep, and if it dies or is hurt or is carried away without anyone seeing it,

11 an oath to Yehovah must be taken by them both, as to whether or not one person has put his hand on his neighbor’s property. The owner must accept this, and the other will make no restitution.

12 But if it was stolen from him, the other must make restitution to the owner for it.

13 If an animal was torn in pieces, let the other man bring the animal as evidence. He will not have to pay for what was torn.

14 If a man borrows any animal from his neighbor and the animal is injured or dies without the owner being with it, the other man must surely make restitution.

15 But if the owner was with it, the other man will not have to pay; if the animal was hired, it will be paid for by its hiring fee.

Laws About Social Justice

16 If a man seduces a virgin who is not engaged, and if he rapes her, he must surely make her his wife by paying the bride wealth required for this.

17 If her father completely refuses to give her to him, he must pay money equal to the bride wealth of virgins.

18 You must not allow a sorceress to live.

19 Whoever has sex with a beast must surely be put to death. (bestiality, homosexuality, lesbianism, LGBTQ)

20 Whoever sacrifices to any god except to Yehovah must be completely destroyed.

21 You must not wrong a foreigner or oppress him, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

22 You must not mistreat any widow or fatherless child.

23 If you afflict them at all, and if they call out to me, Yehovah, I will surely hear their call.

24 My anger will burn, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows, and your children will become fatherless.

25 If you lend money to any of my people among you who are poor, you must not be like a moneylender to him or charge him interest.

26 If you take your neighbor’s garment in pledge, you must return it to him before the sun goes down,

27 for that is his only covering; it is his garment for his body. What else can he sleep in? When he calls out to me, I will hear him, for I am compassionate.

28 You must not blaspheme me, the Almighty, nor curse a ruler of your people.

29 You must not hold back offerings from your harvest or your winepresses. You must give to me the firstborn of your sons.

30 You must also do the same with your oxen and your sheep. For seven days they may remain with their mothers, but on the eighth day you must give them to me.

31 You will be people that are set apart for me. So you must not eat any meat that was torn by animals in the field. Instead, you must throw it to the dogs.


YOU must not give a false report about anyone. Do not join with a wicked man to be a dishonest witness.

2 You must not follow a crowd to do evil, nor may you bear witness while siding with the crowd in order to pervert justice.

3 You must not favor a poor man in his lawsuit.

4 If you meet your enemy’s ox or his donkey going astray, you must bring it back to him.

5 If you see the donkey of someone who hates you fallen to the ground under its load, you must not leave that person. You must surely help him with his donkey.

6 You must not pervert justice when it should go to your poor people in a poor man’s lawsuit.

7 Do not join others in making false accusations, and do not murder the innocent or righteous, for I will not acquit the wicked.

8 Never take a bribe, for a bribe blinds those who see, and perverts honest people’s words.

9 You must not oppress a foreigner, since you know the life of a foreigner, for you were foreigners in the land of Egypt.

Laws About the Shemitah, Sabbath, and Festivals

10 For six years you will sow seed on your land and gather in its produce.

11 But in the seventh year you will leave it unplowed and fallow, so that the poor among your people may eat. What they leave, the wild animals will eat. You will do the same with your vineyards and olive orchards.

12 During six days you will do your work, but on the seventh day you must rest. Do this so that your ox and your donkey may have rest, and so that your female slave’s son and any foreigner may rest and be refreshed.

13 Pay attention to everything that I have said to you. Do not mention the names of other gods, nor let their names be heard from your mouth.

14 You must travel to hold a festival for me three times every year.

15 You are to observe the Festival of Unleavened Bread. As I commanded you, you will eat unleavened bread for seven days. At that time, you will appear before me in the month of Abib, which is fixed for this purpose. It was in this month that you came out from Egypt. But you must not appear before me empty-handed.

16 You must observe the Festival of Harvest (Unleavened Bread to Shavuot), the firstfruits of your labors when you sowed seed in the fields. Also you must observe the Festival of Ingathering (Sukkot/Tabernacles) at the end of the year, when you gather in your produce from the fields.

17 All your males must appear before me, Yehovah, three times every year.

18 You must not offer the blood from sacrifices made to me with bread containing yeast. The fat from the sacrifices at my festivals must not remain all night until the morning.

19 You must bring the choicest firstfruits from your land into my house, the tabernacle of Yehovah your Divine One. You must not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.

Conquest of Canaan Promised

20 I am going to send an angel before you to guard you on the way, and to bring you to the place that I have prepared.

21 Be attentive to him and obey him. Do not provoke him, for he will not pardon your transgressions. My name is on him.

22 If you indeed obey his voice and do everything that I tell you, then I will be an enemy to your enemies and an adversary to your adversaries.

23 My angel will go before you and bring you to the Amorites, Hethites, Perizzites, Canaanites, Hivites, and the Jebusites. I will destroy them.

24 You must not bow down to their gods, worship them, or do as they do. Instead, you must completely overthrow them and smash their stone pillars in pieces.

25 You must worship me, Yehovah your Almighty. If you do, I will bless your bread and water. I will remove sickness from among you.

26 No woman will be barren or will miscarry her young in your land. I will give you long lives.

27 I will send fear of myself on those into whose land you advance. I will kill all the people whom you meet. I will make all your enemies turn their backs to you in fright.

28 I will send hornets before you that will drive out the Hivites, Canaanites, and the Hethites from before you.

29 I will not drive them out from before you in one year, or the land would become abandoned, and the wild animals would become too many for you.

30 Instead, I will drive them out little by little from before you until you become fruitful and inherit the land.

31 I will fix your borders from the Red Sea to the Sea of the Philistines (Mediterranean Sea), and from the wilderness to the Euphrates River. I will give you victory over the land’s inhabitants. You will drive them out before yourselves.

32 You must not make a covenant with them or with their gods.

33 They must not live in your land, or they would make you sin against me. If you worship their gods, this will surely become a trap for you.’”


The Covenant Confirmed/Ratified

THEN Yehovah said to Moses, “Come up to me, you, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of Israel’s elders, and worship me at a distance.

2 Moses alone may come near to me. The others must not come near, nor may the people come up with him.

3 Moses went and told the people all of Yehovah’s words and decrees. All the people answered with one voice and said, “We will do all the words that Yehovah has said.”

4 Then Moses wrote down all of Yehovah’s words. Early in the morning, Moses built an altar at the foot of the mountain and arranged twelve stone pillars, so that the stones would represent the twelve tribes of Israel.

5 He sent some Israelite young men to offer burnt offerings and sacrifice fellowship offerings of oxen to Yehovah.

6 Moses took half of the blood and put it into basins; he sprinkled the other half onto the altar.

7 He took the Book of the Covenant and read it aloud to the people. They said, “We will do all that Yehovah has spoken. We will be obedient.”

8 Then Moses took the blood and sprinkled it onto the people. He said, “This is the blood of the covenant that Yehovah has made with you by giving you this promise with all these words.”

9 Then Moses, Aaron, Nadab, Abihu, and seventy of Israel’s elders went up the mountain.

10 They saw the Almighty of Israel. Under his feet there was a pavement made of sapphire stone, as clear as the sky itself.

11 The Almighty did not lay a hand in anger on the Israelite leaders. They saw the Almighty, and they ate and drank.

Book of the Law (Through Deuteronomy)

12 Yehovah said to Moses, “Come up to me on the mountain and stay there. I will give you the polished tablets of stone and the Torah and commandments that I have written, so that you may teach them.”

13 So Moses set out with his assistant Joshua and went up the mountain of the Almighty.

14 Moses had said to the elders, “Stay here and wait for us until we come to you. Aaron and Hur are with you. If anyone has a dispute, let him go to them.”

15 So Moses went up the mountain, and the cloud covered it.

16 Yehovah’s glory settled on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it for six days. On the seventh day he called to Moses from within the cloud.

17 The appearance of Yehovah’s glory was like a devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the Israelites.

18 Moses entered the cloud and went up the mountain. He was up the mountain for forty days and forty nights.


Contributions for the Sanctuary

YEHOVAH said to Moses,

2 “Tell the Israelites to take an offering for me from every person who is motivated by a willing heart. You must receive these offerings for me.

3 These are the offerings that you must receive from them: gold, silver, and bronze;

4 blue, purple, and scarlet material; fine linen; goats’ hair;

5 ram skins dyed red and sea cow hides; acacia wood;

6 oil for the sanctuary lamps; spices for the anointing oil and the fragrant incense;

7 onyx stones and other precious stones to be set for the ephod and breastpiece.

8 Let them make me a sanctuary so that I may live among them.

9 You must make it exactly as I will show you in the plans for the tabernacle and for all its equipment.

The Ark of the Covenant

10 They are to make an ark of acacia wood. Its length must be two and a half cubits; its width will be one cubit and a half; and its height will be one cubit and a half.

11 You must cover it inside and out with pure gold, and you must make on it a border of gold around its top.

12 You must cast four rings of gold for it, and put them on the ark’s four feet, with two rings on one side of it, and two rings on the other side.

13 You must make poles of acacia wood and cover them with gold.

14 You must put the poles into the rings on the ark’s sides, in order to carry the ark.

15 The poles must remain in the rings of the ark; they must not be taken from it.

16 You must put into the ark the covenant decrees that I will give you.

17 You must make an atonement lid of pure gold. Its length must be two and a half cubits, and its width must be a cubit and a half.

18 You must make two cherubim of hammered gold for the two ends of the atonement lid.

19 Make one cherub for one end of the atonement lid, and the other cherub for the other end. They must be made as one piece with the atonement lid.

20 The cherubim must spread out their wings upward and overshadow the atonement lid with them. The cherubim must face one another and look toward the center of the atonement lid.

21 You must put the atonement lid on top of the ark, and you must put into the ark the covenant decrees that I am giving you.

22 It is at the ark that I will meet with you. I will speak with you from my position above the atonement lid. It will be from between the two cherubim over the ark of the testimony that I will speak to you about all the commands I will give you for the Israelites.

The Table for Bread

23 You must make a table of acacia wood. Its length must be two cubits; its width must be one cubit, and its height must be a cubit and a half.

24 You must cover it with pure gold and put a border of gold around the top.

25 You must make a surrounding frame for it one handbreadth wide, with a surrounding border of gold for the frame.

26 You must make for it four rings of gold and attach the rings to the four corners, where the four feet were.

27 The rings must be attached to the frame to provide places for the poles, in order to carry the table.

28 You must make the poles out of acacia wood and cover them with gold so that the table may be carried with them.

29 You must make the dishes, spoons, pitchers, and bowls to be used to pour out drink offerings. You must make them of pure gold.

30 You must regularly set the bread of the presence on the table before me.

The Golden Lampstand

31 You must make a lampstand of pure hammered gold. The lampstand is to be made with its base and shaft. Its cups, its leafy bases, and its flowers are to be all made of one piece with it.

32 Six branches must extend out from its sides, three branches must extend from one side, and three branches of the lampstand must extend from the other side.

33 The first branch must have three cups made like almond blossoms, with a leafy base and a flower, and three cups made like almond blossoms in the other branch, with a leafy base and a flower. It must be the same for all six branches extending out from the lampstand.

34 On the lampstand itself, the central shaft, there must be four cups made like almond blossoms, with their leafy bases and the flowers.

35 There must be a leafy base under the first pair of branches, made as one piece with it, and a leafy base under the second pair of branches, also made as one piece with it. In the same way there must be a leafy base under the third pair of branches, made as one piece with it. It must be the same for all six branches extending out from the lampstand.

36 Their leafy bases and branches must all be one piece with it, one beaten piece of work of pure gold.

37 You must make the lampstand and its seven lamps, and set up its lamps for them to give light from it.

38 The tongs and their trays must be made of pure gold.

39 Use one talent of pure gold to make the lampstand and its accessories.

40 Be sure to make them after the pattern that you are being shown on the mountain.


The Tabernacle

YOU must make the tabernacle with ten curtains made from fine linen and blue, purple, and scarlet wool with the designs of cherubim. This will be the work of a very skilled craftsman.

2 The length of each curtain must be twenty-eight cubits, the width four cubits. All the curtains must be of the same size.

3 Five curtains must be joined to each other, and the other five curtains must also be joined to each other.

4 You must make loops of blue along the outer edge of the end curtain of one set. In the same way, you must do the same along the outer edge of the end curtain in the second set.

5 You must make fifty loops on the first curtain, and you must make fifty loops on the end curtain in the second set. Do this so that the loops will be opposite to each other.

6 You must make fifty clasps of gold and join the curtains together with them so that the tabernacle becomes united.

7 You must make curtains of goats’ hair for a tent over the tabernacle. You must make eleven of these curtains.

8 The length of each curtain must be thirty cubits, and the width of each curtain must be four cubits. Each of the eleven curtains must be of the same size.

9 You must join five curtains to each other and the other six curtains to each other. You must double over the sixth curtain in the front of the tent.

10 You must make fifty loops on the edge of the end curtain of the first set, and fifty loops on the edge of the end curtain that joins the second set.

11 You must make fifty bronze clasps and put them into the loops. Then you join the tent together so that it may be one piece.

12 The leftover half curtain, that is, the overhanging part remaining from the tent’s curtains, must hang at the back of the tabernacle.

13 There must be one cubit of curtain on one side, and one cubit of curtain on the other side, that which is left over of the length of the tent’s curtains must hang over the sides of the tabernacle on one side and on the other side, to cover it.

14 You must make for the tabernacle a covering of ram skins dyed red, and another covering of fine leather to go above that.

15 You must make upright frames out of acacia wood for the tabernacle.

16 The length of each frame must be ten cubits, and its width must be one and a half cubits.

17 There must be two wooden pegs in each frame for joining the frames to each other. You are to make all the tabernacle’s frames in this way.

18 When you make the frames for the tabernacle, you must make twenty frames for the south side.

19 You must make forty silver bases to go under the twenty frames. There must be two bases under the first frame to be its two pedestals, and also two bases under each of the other frames for their two pedestals.

20 For the second side of the tabernacle, on the north side, you must make twenty frames

21 and their forty silver bases. There must be two bases under the first frame, two bases under the next frame, and so on.

22 For the back side of the tabernacle on the west side, you must make six frames.

23 You must make two frames for the back corners of the tabernacle.

24 These frames must be separate at the bottom, but joined at the top to the same ring. It must be this way for both of the back corners.

25 There must be eight frames, together with their silver bases. There must be sixteen bases in all, two bases under the first frame, two bases under the next frame, and so on.

26 You must make crossbars of acacia wood, five for the frames of the one side of the tabernacle,

27 five crossbars for the frames of the other side of the tabernacle, and five crossbars for the frames for the back side of the tabernacle to the west.

28 The crossbar in the center of the frames, that is, halfway up, must reach from end to end.

29 You must cover the frames with gold. You must make their rings of gold, for them to serve as holders for the crossbars, and you must cover the bars with gold.

30 You must set up the tabernacle by following the plan you were shown on the mountain.

31 You must make a curtain of blue, purple, and scarlet wool, and of fine linen, with designs of cherubim, the work of a skillful workman.

32 You must hang it on four pillars of acacia wood covered with gold. These pillars must have hooks of gold set on four silver bases.

33 You must hang up the curtain under the clasps, and you must bring in the ark of the testimony. The curtain is to separate the holy place from the most holy place.

34 You must put the atonement lid on the ark of the testimony, which is in the most holy place.

35 You must place the table outside the curtain. You must place the lampstand opposite the table on the south side of the tabernacle. The table must be on the north side.

36 You must make a hanging for the tent entrance. You must make it out of blue, purple, and scarlet material and fine twined linen, the work of an embroiderer.

37 For the hanging, you must make five pillars of acacia and cover them with gold. Their hooks must be of gold, and you must cast five bronze bases for them.


The Bronze Altar

YOU must make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits wide. The altar must be square and three cubits high.

2 You must make extensions of its four corners shaped like ox horns. The horns will be made as one piece with the altar, and you must cover them with bronze.

3 You must make equipment for the altar: pots for ashes, and also shovels, basins, meat forks, and firepans. You must make all these utensils with bronze.

4 You must make a grate for the altar, a network of bronze. Make a bronze ring for each of the grate’s four corners.

5 You must put the grate under the ledge of the altar, halfway down to the bottom.

6 You must make poles for the altar, poles of acacia wood, and you must cover them with bronze.

7 The poles must be put into the rings, and the poles must be on the two sides of the altar, to carry it.

8 You must make the altar hollow, out of planks. You must make it in the way you were shown on the mountain.

The Court of the Tabernacle

9 You must make a courtyard for the tabernacle. There must be hangings on the south side of the courtyard, hangings of fine twined linen one hundred cubits long.

10 The hangings must have twenty posts, with twenty bronze bases. There must also be hooks attached to the posts, as well as silver rods.

11 Likewise along the north side, there must be hangings one hundred cubits long with twenty posts, twenty bronze bases, hooks attached to the posts, and silver rods.

12 Along the courtyard on the west side there must be a curtain fifty cubits long. There must be ten posts and ten bases.

13 The courtyard must also be fifty cubits long on the east side.

14 The hangings for one side of the entrance must be fifteen cubits long. They must have three posts with three bases.

15 The other side must also have hangings fifteen cubits long. They must have their three posts and three bases.

16 The courtyard gate must be a curtain twenty cubits long. The curtain must be made of blue, purple, and scarlet material and fine twined linen, the work of an embroiderer. It must have four posts with four bases.

17 All the courtyard posts must have silver rods, silver hooks, and bronze bases.

18 The length of the courtyard must be one hundred cubits, the width fifty cubits, and the height five cubits with fine twined linen hangings all along, and bases of bronze.

19 All the equipment to be used in the tabernacle, and all the tent pegs for the tabernacle and courtyard must be made of bronze.

Oil for the Lamp

20 You must command the people of Israel to bring olive oil, pure and pressed, for the lamps so they may burn continually.

21 In the tent of meeting, outside the curtain that is in front of the tabernacle that contains the ark of testimony, Aaron and his sons must keep the lamps burning before Yehovah, from evening to morning. This requirement will be a lasting ordinance throughout the generations of the people of Israel.


The Priests’ Garments

CALL to yourself Aaron your brother and his sons, Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar, from among the Israelites so that they may serve me as priests.

2 You must make for Aaron, your brother, garments that are set apart to me. These garments will be for his honor and splendor.

3 You must speak to all people who are wise in heart, those whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, so that they may make Aaron’s garments to set him apart to serve me as my priest.

4 The garments that they must make are a breastpiece, an ephod, a robe, a coat of woven work, a turban, and a sash. They must make these garments that are set apart to me. They will be for your brother Aaron and his sons so that they may serve me as priests.

5 Craftsmen must use fine linen that is gold, blue, purple, and scarlet.

6 They must make the ephod of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet wool, and of fine twined linen. It must be the work of a skillful craftsman.

7 It must have two shoulder pieces attached to its two upper corners.

8 Its finely woven waistband must be like the ephod; it must be made of one piece with the ephod, made of fine twined linen that is gold, blue, purple, and scarlet.

9 You must take two onyx stones and engrave on them the names of Israel’s twelve sons.

10 Six of their names must be on one stone, and six names must be on the other stone, in order of the sons’ birth.

11 With the work of an engraver in stone, like the engraving on a signet, you must engrave the two stones with the names of Israel’s twelve sons. You must mount the stones in settings of gold.

12 You must put the two stones on the shoulder pieces of the ephod, to be stones to remind Yehovah of Israel’s sons. Aaron will carry their names before Yehovah on his two shoulders as a reminder to him.

13 You must make settings of gold

14 and two braided chains of pure gold like cords, and you must attach the chains to the settings.

15 You must make a breastpiece for decision making, the work of a skillful workman, fashioned like the ephod. Make it of gold, of blue, purple, and scarlet wool, and of fine linen.

16 It is to be square. You must fold the breastpiece double. It must be one span long and one span wide.

17 You must place in it four rows of precious stones. The first row must have a ruby, a topaz, and a garnet.

18 The second row must have an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond.

19 The third row must have a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst.

20 The fourth row must have a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper. They must be mounted in gold settings.

21 The stones must be arranged by the names of Israel’s twelve sons, each in order by name. They must be like the engraving on a signet ring, each name standing for one of the twelve tribes.

22 You must make on the breastpiece chains like cords, braided work of pure gold.

23 You must make two rings of gold for the breastpiece and must attach them to the two ends of the breastpiece.

24 You must attach the two golden chains to the two corners of the breastpiece.

25 You must attach the other ends of the two braided chains to the two settings. Then you must attach those to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at its front.

26 You must make two rings of gold, and you must put them on the other two corners of the breastpiece, on the edge next to the inner border.

27 You must make two more gold rings, and you must attach them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces of the front of the ephod, close to its seam above the finely woven waistband of the ephod.

28 They must tie the breastpiece by its rings to the ephod’s rings with a blue cord, so that it might be attached just above the ephod’s woven waistband. This is so that the breastpiece might not become unattached from the ephod.

29 When Aaron goes into the holy place, he must carry the names of the people of Israel over his heart in the breastpiece for decision making, as a continuing memorial before Yehovah.

30 You are to put the Urim and the Thummim in the breastpiece for decision making, so they may be over Aaron’s heart when he goes in before Yehovah. Thus Aaron will always carry the means for making decisions for the people of Israel over his heart before Yehovah.

31 You must make the robe of the ephod completely of purple fabric.

32 It must have an opening for the head in the middle. The opening must have a woven edge round about so that it does not tear. This must be the work of a weaver.

33 On the bottom hem, you must make pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn all around. Gold bells must be between them all around.

34 There must be a golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate, and so on, all around the hem of the robe.

35 The robe is to be on Aaron when he serves, so that its sound can be heard when he goes into the holy place before Yehovah and when he leaves. This is so that he does not die.

36 You must make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it, like the engraving on a signet, “Holy to Yehovah.”

37 You must attach this plate by a blue cord to the front of the turban.

38 It must be on Aaron’s forehead; he must always bear any guilt that might attach to the offering of the holy gifts that the Israelites set apart to Yehovah. The turban must be always on his forehead so that Yehovah may accept their gifts.

39 You must make the coat with fine linen, and you must make a turban of fine linen. You must also make a sash, the work of an embroiderer.

40 For Aaron’s sons you must make coats, sashes, and headbands for their honor and splendor.

41 You must clothe Aaron your brother, and his sons with him. You must anoint them, ordain them, and set them apart to me, so that they may serve me as priests.

42 You must make for them linen undergarments to cover their naked flesh, that will cover them from the waist to the thighs.

43 Aaron and his sons must wear these garments when they enter the tent of meeting or when they approach the altar to serve in the holy place. They must do this so they would not be guilty or else they would die. This is a permanent law for Aaron and his descendants after him.


Consecration of the Priests

NOW this is what you must do to set them apart to me so that they may serve me as priests. Take one young bull and two rams without blemish,

2 bread without yeast, and cakes without yeast mixed with oil. Also take wafers without yeast rubbed with oil. Make the wafers using fine wheat flour.

3 You must put them into a single basket, bring them in the basket, and present them with the bull and the two rams.

4 You must present Aaron and his sons at the entrance to the tent of meeting. You must wash Aaron and his sons in water.

5 You must take the garments and clothe Aaron with the coat, the robe of the ephod, the ephod, and the breastpiece, fastening the finely woven waistband of the ephod around him.

6 You must set the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban.

7 Then take the anointing oil and pour it on his head, and in this way anoint him.

8 You must bring his sons and put coats on them.

9 You must clothe Aaron and his sons with sashes and put headbands on them. The work of the priesthood will belong to them by permanent law. In this way you must consecrate Aaron and his sons for them to serve me.

10 You must all bring the bull before the tent of meeting, and Aaron and his sons must lay their hands on its head.

11 You must kill the bull before me, Yehovah, at the entrance to the tent of meeting.

12 You must take some of the bull’s blood and put it on the horns of the altar with your finger, and you must pour out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar.

13 You must take all the fat that covers the inner parts, and also take the covering of the liver and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them; burn it all on the altar.

14 But as for the bull’s flesh, as well as its skin and dung, you must burn it up outside the camp. It will be a sin offering.

15 You must also take the one ram, and Aaron and his sons must lay their hands on its head.

16 You must kill the ram, then take its blood and sprinkle it on all sides of the altar.

17 You must cut the ram into pieces and wash its inner parts and its legs, and you must put the inner parts, together with its pieces and with its head,

18 on the altar. Then burn the whole ram. It will be a burnt offering to me, Yehovah. It will produce a sweet aroma for me; it will be an offering made to me by fire.

19 You must then take the other ram, and Aaron and his sons must lay their hands on its head.

20 Then you must kill the ram and take some of its blood. Put it on the tip of Aaron’s right ear, and on the tip of his sons’ right ears, on the thumb of their right hands, and on the great toe of their right feet. Then you must sprinkle the blood against the altar on every side.

21 You must take some of the blood that is on the altar and some of the anointing oil, and sprinkle it all on Aaron and on his garments, and also on his sons and on their garments. Aaron will then be set apart for me, as well as his garments, his sons and his sons’ garments with him.

22 You must take the ram’s fat, the fat tail, the fat that covers the inner parts, the covering of the liver, the two kidneys and the fat on them, and the right thigh, for this ram is for the priests’ consecration to me.

23 Take one loaf of bread, one cake of bread made with oil, and one wafer out of the basket of bread without yeast that will be before me, Yehovah.

24 You must put these in Aaron’s hands and in the hands of his sons and wave them before me for a wave offering before Yehovah.

25 You must then take the food from their hands and burn it on the altar with the burnt offering. It will produce a sweet aroma for me; it will be an offering made to me by fire.

26 You must take the breast of Aaron’s ram of dedication and wave it for a wave offering before Yehovah, and it will be your share.

27 You must set apart to me the breast of the wave offering that is waved, and the thigh that is the contribution for the priests, both the breast that was waved and the thigh that was contributed for Aaron and his sons.

28 These portions of meat given by the Israelites must forever belong to Aaron and his descendants. By the regulations for the fellowship offerings, these will be offerings for the priests taken from the Israelites’ offerings presented to me, Yehovah.

29 The holy garments of Aaron must also be reserved for his sons after him. They are to be anointed in them and ordained to me in them.

30 The priest who succeeds him from among his sons, who comes into the tent of meeting to serve me in the holy place, is to wear those garments for seven days.

31 You must take the ram for the installation of the priests to me and boil its meat in a holy place.

32 Aaron and his sons must eat the ram’s meat and the bread that is in the basket at the entrance to the tent of meeting.

33 They must eat the meat and bread that were given to atone for them and to ordain them, to be set apart to me. No one else may eat that food, because they must treat it as consecrated to me, reserved for me.

34 If any of the meat of the ordination offering, or any of the bread, remains to the next morning, then you must burn it. It must not be eaten because it has been set apart to me.

35 In this way, by following all that I have commanded you to do, you must treat Aaron and his sons. For seven days you must prepare them.

36 Every day you must offer a bull as a sin offering for atonement. You must purify the altar by making atonement for it, and you must anoint it in order to set it apart to me.

37 For seven days you must make atonement for the altar and set it apart to Yehovah. Then the altar will be completely set apart to me. Whatever touches the altar will be set apart to Yehovah.

38 You must regularly offer on the altar every day two lambs a year old.

39 One lamb you must offer in the morning, and the other lamb you must offer about sundown.

40 With the first lamb, offer a tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with the fourth part of a hin of oil from pressed olives, and the fourth part of a hin of wine as a drink offering.

41 You must offer the second lamb about sunset. You must offer the same grain offering as in the morning, and the same drink offering. These will produce a sweet aroma for me; it will be an offering made to me by fire.

42 These must be regular burnt offerings throughout your people’s generations. You must do them at the entrance to the tent of meeting before me, Yehovah, where I will meet with you to speak to you.

43 That is where I will meet with the Israelites; the tent will be set apart for me by my glory.

44 I will set apart the tent of meeting and the altar for these to belong to me alone. I will also set apart Aaron and his sons to serve me as priests.

45 I will live among the Israelites and will be their Almighty.

46 They will know that I am Yehovah, their Almighty, who brought them out from the land of Egypt so that I might live among them. I am Yehovah, their Almighty.


The Altar of Incense

YOU must make an altar to burn incense. You must make it with acacia wood.

2 Its length must be one cubit, and its width one cubit. It must be square, and its height must be two cubits. Its horns must be made as one piece with it.

3 You must cover the incense altar with pure gold, its top, its sides, and its horns. You must make a surrounding border of gold for it.

4 You must make two golden rings to be attached to it under its border on its two opposite sides. The rings must be holders for poles to carry the altar.

5 You must make the poles of acacia wood, and you must cover them with gold.

6 You must put the incense altar before the curtain that is by the ark of the testimony. It will be before the atonement lid that is over the ark of the testimony, where I will meet with you.

7 Aaron must burn fragrant incense every morning. He must burn it when he tends the lamps.

8 When Aaron lights the lamps again in the evening, he must burn incense on the incense altar. This must be a regular burning of incense before me, Yehovah, throughout your people’s generations.

9 But you must offer no other incense on the incense altar, nor any burnt offering or grain offering. You must pour no drink offering on it.

10 Aaron must make atonement on the horns of the incense altar once a year. He must do this using the blood of the sin offering of atonement. The high priest must do this throughout your people’s generations. This offering will be completely set apart to me, Yehovah.”

The Census Tax

11 Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

12 “When you take a census of the Israelites, then each person must give a ransom for his life to Yehovah. You must do this after you count them, so that there will be no plague among them when you count them.

13 Everyone who is counted in the census is to pay half a shekel of silver, according to the weight of the shekel of the sanctuary, a shekel is the same as twenty gerahs. This half shekel will be an offering to me, Yehovah.

14 Everyone who is counted, from twenty years old and up, must give this offering to me.

15 When the people give this offering to me to make atonement for their lives, the rich must not give more than the half shekel, and the poor must not give less.

16 You must receive this atonement money from the Israelites and you must allocate it to the work of the tent of meeting. It must be a reminder to the Israelites before me, to make atonement for your lives.

The Bronze Basin

17 Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

18 “You must also make a large bronze basin with a bronze stand, a basin for washing. You must put it between the tent of meeting and the altar, and you must put water in it.

19 Aaron and his sons must wash their hands and their feet with the water in it.

20 When they go into the tent of meeting or when they go near to the altar to serve me by burning an offering, they must wash with water so that they do not die.

21 They must wash their hands and feet so that they do not die. This must be a permanent law for Aaron and his descendants throughout their people’s generations.”

The Anointing Oil and Incense

22 Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

23 “Take these fine spices: five hundred shekels of flowing myrrh, 250 shekels of sweet-smelling cinnamon, 250 shekels of sweet-smelling cane,

24 five hundred shekels of cassia, measured by the weight of the shekel of the sanctuary, and one hin of olive oil.

25 You must make holy anointing oil with these ingredients, the work of a perfumer. It will be a holy anointing oil, reserved for me.

26 You must anoint the tent of meeting with this oil, as well as the ark of the testimony,

27 the table and all its utensils, the lampstand and its equipment, the incense altar,

28 the altar for burnt offerings with all its equipment, and the basin with its stand.

29 You must set them apart to me so that they may be holy to me. Anything that touches them will also be holy.

30 You must anoint Aaron and his sons and set them aside to me so that they may serve me as priests.

31 You must say to the Israelites, ’This must be an anointing oil that is set apart to Yehovah throughout your people’s generations.

32 It must not be applied to people’s skin, nor must you make any oil like it with the same formula, because it is set apart to Yehovah. You must regard it in this manner.

33 Whoever makes perfume like it, or whoever puts any of it on someone, that person must be cut off from his people.’”

34 Yehovah said to Moses, “Take spices, stacte, onycha, and galbanum, sweet spices along with pure frankincense, each in equal amounts.

35 Make it into the form of incense, blended by a perfumer, seasoned with salt, pure and set apart.

36 You will grind it into a very fine mixture. Put part of it in front of the ark of the testimony, which is in the tent of meeting, where I will meet with you. You will regard it as very holy to me.

37 As for this incense that you will make, you must not make any with the same formula for yourselves. It must be most holy to you.

38 Whoever makes anything like it to use as a perfume must be cut off from his people.


Oholiab and Bezalel

YEHOVAH spoke to Moses and said,

2 “See, I have called by name Bezalel son of Uri son of Hur, from the tribe of Judah.

3 I have filled Bezalel with my Ruach, to give him wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, for all kinds of craftsmanship,

4 to make artistic designs and to work in gold, silver, and bronze;

5 also to cut and set stones and to carve wood, to do all kinds of craftsmanship.

6 In addition to him, I have appointed Oholiab son of Ahisamach, from the tribe of Dan. I have put skill into the hearts of all who are wise so that they may make all that I have commanded you. This includes

7 the tent of meeting, the ark of the testimony, the atonement lid on the ark, and all the furniture of the tent,

8 the table and its utensils, the pure lampstand with all its equipment, the incense altar,

9 the altar for burnt offerings with all its equipment, and the large basin with its base.

10 This also includes the finely-woven garments, the holy garments for Aaron the priest and those of his sons, reserved for me so that they may serve as priests.

11 This also includes the anointing oil and the sweet incense for the holy place. These craftsmen must make all these things just as I have commanded you.

The Sabbath

12 Yehovah spoke to Moses and said,

13 “Tell the Israelites: ’You must certainly keep Yehovah’s Sabbath days, for these will be a sign between him and you throughout your people’s generations so that you may know that he is Yehovah, who sets you apart for himself.

14 So you must keep the Sabbath, for it must be treated by you as holy, reserved for him. Everyone who defiles it must surely be put to death. Whoever works on the Sabbath, that person must surely be cut off from his people.

15 Work will be done for six days, but the seventh day is to be a Sabbath of complete rest, holy, reserved for Yehovah’s honor. Whoever does any work on the Sabbath day must surely be put to death.

16 Therefore, the Israelites must keep the Sabbath. They must observe it throughout their people’s generations as a permanent law.

17 The Sabbath will always be a sign between Yehovah and the Israelites, for in six days Yehovah made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested and was refreshed.’”

18 When the Almighty had finished talking with Moses on Mount Sinai, he gave him two polished tablets of covenant decrees, made of stone, written on by his own hand.


The Golden Calf

WHEN the people saw that Moses delayed in coming down the mountain, they gathered around Aaron and said to him, “Come, make us an idol that will go before us. As for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him.”

2 So Aaron said to them, “Take off the golden rings that are on your wives’ ears, and the ears of your sons and daughters, and bring them to me.”

3 All the people took off the golden rings that were on their ears and brought them to Aaron.

4 He received the gold from them, fashioned it in a mold, and made it into a molded calf. Then the people said, “Israel, this is your god who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.”

5 When Aaron saw this, he built an altar before the calf and made a proclamation; he said, “Tomorrow will be a festival in Yehovah’s honor.”

6 The people arose early the next day and offered burnt offerings and brought fellowship offerings. Then they sat down to eat and to drink, and then got up to carouse in wild celebration.

7 Then Yehovah spoke to Moses, “Go quickly, for your people, whom you brought up out of the land of Egypt, have corrupted themselves.

8 They have quickly left the way that I commanded them. They have molded for themselves a calf and have worshiped it and sacrificed to it. They have said, ‘Israel, this is your god who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.’”

9 Then Yehovah said to Moses, “I have seen this people. Look, they are a stiff-necked people.

10 Now then, do not try to stop me. My anger will burn hot against them, so I will destroy them. Then I will make a great ethno-linguistic nation from you.

11 But Moses tried to calm down Yehovah his Almighty. He said, “Yehovah, why does your anger burn against your people, whom you have brought out of the land of Egypt with great power and with a mighty hand?

12 Why should the Egyptians say, ‘He led them out with evil intent, to kill them in the mountains and to destroy them from the face of the earth?’ Turn from your burning anger and relent from this punishment on your people.

13 Call to mind Abraham and Isaac and Israel, your servants, to whom you swore by your own self and said to them, ‘I will make your descendants as many as the stars in the heavens, and I will give to your descendants all this land of which I have spoken. They will inherit it forever.’”

14 Then Yehovah relented from the punishment that he had said he would inflict on his people.

15 Then Moses turned around and went down the mountain, carrying the two polished tablets of the covenant decrees in his hand. The tablets were written on both their sides, on both the front and the back.

16 The polished tablets were the Almighty’s own work, and the writing was the Almighty’s own writing, engraved on the tablets.

17 When Joshua heard the noise of the people as they shouted, he said to Moses, “There is the noise of combat in the camp.”

18 But Moses said, “It is not the sound of a victor, and not the sound of defeated people, but the sound of singing that I hear.”

19 When Moses approached the camp, he saw the calf and the people dancing. He became very angry. He threw the polished tablets out of his hands and broke them at the bottom of the mountain.

20 He took the calf that the people had made, burned it, ground it to powder, and poured it into the water. Then he made the people of Israel drink it.

21 Then Moses said to Aaron, “What did this people do to you, that you have brought such a great sin on them?”

22 Aaron said, “Do not let your anger burn hot, my master. You know these people, how they are set on doing evil.

23 They said to me, ‘Make us a god who will go before us. As for this Moses, the man who brought us up out of the land of Egypt, we do not know what has happened to him.’

24 So I said to them, ‘Whoever has any gold, let him take it off.’ They gave me the gold and I threw it into the fire, and out came this calf.”

25 Moses saw that the people were running wild, for Aaron had let them get out of control, causing their enemies to mock them.

26 Then Moses stood at the entrance to the camp and said, “Whoever is on Yehovah’s side, come to me.” All the Levites gathered around him.

27 He said to them, “Yehovah, the Almighty of Israel, says this: ‘Let each man fasten his sword on his side and go back and forth from entrance to entrance throughout the camp, and kill his brother, his companion, and his neighbor.’”

28 The Levites did what Moses ordered. That day about three thousand of the people died.

29 Moses said to the Levites, “You have been placed into Yehovah’s service today, for each of you has taken action against his son and his brother, so Yehovah might give you a blessing today.”

30 The next day Moses said to the people, “You have committed a very great sin. Now I will go up to Yehovah. Perhaps I can make atonement for your sin.”

31 Moses returned to Yehovah and said, “Oh, these people have committed a great sin and made themselves an idol of gold.

32 But now, please forgive their sin; but if you do not, blot me out of the book that you have written.

33 Yehovah said to Moses, “Whoever has sinned against me, that person I will blot out of my book.

34 So now go, lead the people to the place of which I have spoken to you. See, my angel will go before you. But on the day that I punish them, I will punish them for their sin.

35 Then Yehovah sent a plague on the people, because they had made the calf, the one that Aaron made.


The Command to Leave Sinai

YEHOVAH spoke to Moses, “Go from here, you and the people whom you have brought up out of the land of Egypt. Go to the land about which I made an oath to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, when I said, ‘I will give it to your descendants.’

2 I will send an angel before you, and I will drive out the Canaanites, Amorites, Hethites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites.

3 Go to that land, which is flowing with milk and honey, but I will not go up with you, because you are a stubborn people. I might destroy you on the way.

4 When the people heard these troubling words, they mourned, and no one put on any jewelry.

5 Yehovah had said to Moses, “Say to the Israelites, ‘You are a stubborn people. If I went among you for even one moment, I would destroy you. So now, take off your jewelry so that I may decide what to do with you.’”

6 So the Israelites wore no jewelry from Mount Horeb onward.

The Tent of Meeting

7 Moses took a tent and pitched it outside the camp, some distance from the camp. He called it the tent of meeting. Everyone who asked Yehovah for anything went out to the tent of meeting, outside the camp.

8 When Moses would go out to the tent, all the people would stand up at their tent entrances and look at Moses until he had gone inside.

9 Whenever Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would come down and stand at the tent entrance, and Yehovah would speak with Moses.

10 Whenever all the people saw the pillar of cloud stand at the entrance to the tent, they would get up and worship, every man at his own tent entrance.

11 Yehovah would speak to Moses face to face, as a man speaks to his friend. Then Moses would return to the camp, but his servant Joshua son of Nun, a young man, would stay in the tent.

Moses’ Intercession

12 Moses said to Yehovah, “See, you have been saying to me, ‘Take this people on their journey,’ but you have not let me know whom you will send with me. You have said, ‘I know you by name, and you have also found favor in my sight.’

13 Now if I have found favor in your sight, show me your ways so that I may know you and continue to find favor in your sight. Remember that this ethno-linguistic nation is your congregation.

14 Yehovah answered, “My own presence will go with you, and I will give you rest.”

15 Moses said to him, “If your presence does not go with us, do not take us up from here.

16 For otherwise, how will it be known that I have found favor in your sight, I and your people? Will it not only be if you go with us so that I and your people are different from all the other peoples that are on the surface of the earth?

17 Yehovah said to Moses, “I will also do this thing that you have requested, for you have found favor in my sight, and I know you by name.”

18 Moses said, “Please show me your glory.”

19 Yehovah said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you, and I will proclaim my name ‘Yehovah’ before you. I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and I will show mercy on whom I will show mercy.”

20 But Yehovah said, “You may not see my face, for no one can see me and live.”

21 Yehovah said, “See, here is a place by me; you will stand on this rock.

22 While my glory passes by, I will put you in a crevice of the rock and cover you with my hand until I have passed by.

23 Then I will take away my hand, and you will see my back, but my face will not be seen.


Moses Makes New Tablets

YEHOVAH said to Moses, “Cut two tablets of stone like the first polished tablets. I will write on these polished tablets the words that were on the first polished tablets, the tablets that you broke.

2 Be ready by morning and come up Mount Sinai, and present yourself there to me on the mountain top.

3 No one is to come up with you. Do not let anyone else be seen anywhere on the mountain. No flocks or herds are even to graze in front of the mountain.

4 So Moses cut two tablets of stone like the first ones, and he got up early in the morning and went up Mount Sinai, as Yehovah had instructed him. Moses carried the polished tablets of stone in his hand.

5 Yehovah came down in the cloud and stood with Moses there, and he pronounced the name “Yehovah.”

6 Yehovah passed by before him and proclaimed, “Yehovah, Yehovah, the Almighty is merciful and gracious, slow to anger, and abounding in covenant faithfulness and trustworthiness,

7 keeping covenant faithfulness for thousands of generations, forgiving iniquities, transgressions, and sins. But he will by no means clear the guilty. He will bring the punishment for the fathers’ sin on their children and on their children’s children, as far as the third and fourth generations.”

8 Moses quickly bowed his head to the ground and worshiped.

9 Then he said, “If now I have found favor in your sight, my Lord, please go among us, for this people is stubborn. Pardon our iniquity and our sin, and take us as your inheritance.”

Levitical Enactments

10 Yehovah said, “See, I am about to make a covenant. Before all your congregation, I will do marvels such as have not been done in all the earth nor in any ethno-linguistic nation. All the people among you will see my deeds, for it is a fearful thing that I am doing with you.

11 Obey what I command you today. I am about to drive out before you the Amorites, Canaanites, Hethites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites.

12 Be careful not to make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land where you are going, or they will become a trap among you.

13 Instead, you must break down their altars, smash their stone pillars, and cut down their Asherah poles.

14 For you must worship no other god, for I, Yehovah, whose name is ‘Jealous,’ am a jealous Divine One.

15 So be careful not to make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, for they prostitute themselves to their gods, and they sacrifice to their gods. Then one of them will invite you and you will eat some of his sacrifice,

16 and then you will even take some of his daughters for your sons, and his daughters will prostitute themselves to their gods, and they will make your sons prostitute themselves to their gods.

17 Do not make for yourselves gods of molten metal.

18 You must keep the Festival of Unleavened Bread. As I commanded you, you must eat bread without yeast for seven days at the fixed time in the month of Abib, for it was in the month of Abib you came out from Egypt.

19 All the firstborn are mine, even every male firstborn of your cattle, both of oxen and sheep.

20 You must buy back the firstborn of a donkey with a lamb, but if you do not buy it back, then you must break its neck. You must buy back all the firstborn of your sons. No one may appear before me empty-handed.

21 You may work for six days, but on the seventh day you must rest. Even at plowing time and in harvest, you must rest.

22 You must observe the Festival of Shavuot with the first yield of the wheat harvest, and you must observe the Festival of Ingathering (Sukkot/Tabernacles) at the year’s end.

23 All your men must appear before me, Lord Yehovah, the Almighty of Israel three times every year.

24 For I will drive out ethno-linguistic nations before you and expand your borders. No one will desire to invade your land and take it when you go up to appear before me, Yehovah your Almighty, three times every year.

25 You must not offer the blood of my sacrifice with any yeast, nor may any meat from the sacrifice at the Festival of the Passover be left over to the morning.

26 You must bring the best of the firstfruits from your fields to my tabernacle. You must not boil a young goat in its mother’s milk.”

27 Yehovah said to Moses, “Write down these words, for I pledge myself to these words I have spoken, and have made a covenant with you and Israel.”

28 Moses was there with Yehovah for forty days and nights; he did not eat any food nor drink any water. He wrote on the polished tablets the words of the covenant, the ten Commandments.

The Shining Face of Moses

29 When Moses came down from Mount Sinai with the two polished tablets of the covenant decrees in his hand, he did not know that the skin of his face had become radiant while speaking with the Almighty.

30 When Aaron and the Israelites saw Moses, the skin of his face was shining, and they were afraid to come near him.

31 But Moses called to them, and Aaron and all the leaders of the community came up to him. Then Moses spoke with them.

32 After this, all the people of Israel came up to Moses, and he told them all the commands that Yehovah had given him on Mount Sinai.

33 When Moses had finished speaking with them, he put a veil over his face.

34 Whenever Moses went before Yehovah to speak with him, he would remove the veil, until he came out. When he came out, he would tell the Israelites what he was commanded to say.

35 When the Israelites saw Moses’ face shining, he would put the veil over his face again until he went back in to speak with Y